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Connaissance tacite

De Wikiberal

La connaissance tacite est un concept développé par Michael Polanyi en 1958 dans Personal Knowledge : Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. Il y montre que le développement de toute forme de savoir, y compris dans le domaine scientifique, est indissociable d'expériences subjectives et de « connaissances personnelles ». Cette connaissance demeure, pour une large part, implicite[1] , inarticulée et non verbale. En, 1966, dans son livre, "The Tacit Dimension", Michael Polanyi renforce son concept en formulant que les gens en savent plus qu'ils ne peuvent le dire. En ce sens, il exprime l'idée qu'il n'est pas possible de formuler tout son savoir, qu'il existe une partie non exprimable de notre savoir.

Prise en compte de la connaissance tacite en science du management

En science du management, dès 1938, Chester Barnard avait rapidement esquissé ce « savoir-faire » ou cette « connaissance comportementale » qui est « nécessaire pour réaliser des choses dans des situations concrètes » mais qui « n'est pas susceptible de formulation verbale »[2]. En effet, le discours ne parvient pas toujours à révéler une expérience vécue dans son intégralité, comme le présente Friedrich Hayek, en 1937 la connaissance est localisée. Et, il le confirme ensuite en 1945.

« [..] pratiquement chaque individu a des avantages par rapport à tous les autres parce qu'il possède de l'information unique qui peut être mise à profit; mais cette information ne sera mise à profit que si la décision en est laissée à l'individu ou si elle est prise en collaboration avec lui » [3]

La thèse de l'émergence des connaissances implicites, décrite par Michael Polanyi, a été reprise par les tenants de la perspective évolutionniste du changement (Richard R. Nelson et Sidney G. Winter, 1982). Au milieu des années 1990, plusieurs travaux ont présenté les connaissances tacites par opposition aux connaissances explicites dans le mode de management des entreprises (Théorie du management par la connaissance d'Ikujiro Nonaka en 1994 et 1995; J. C. Spender en 1996).

Différences entre connaissance tacite et connaissance explicite

Plusieurs attributs différencient la connaissance tacite de la connaissance explicite :

  • La connaissance tacite est intégrée aux individus[4] et elle est fortement imbriquée aux organisations. L'essentiel du savoir réside dans la tête des gens sous la forme de savoir pratique, de règles générales et d'intuition fondée sur l'expérience personnelle.
  • Ce type de connaissance tacite est moins structuré et peut être difficile à transmettre, mais cette connaissance est indispensable pour porter des jugements et pour agir. Pourtant, les travailleurs expérimentés peuvent ne pas être conscients de leur savoir tacite ou ne pas être capables de l'exprimer d'une manière écrite.
  • La connaissance tacite n'est pas formalisable facilement. Elle est difficilement transférable à l'intérieur de l'entreprise ou entre les entreprises. Cependant, il se peut que les gens au même niveau culturel ou ayant les mêmes origines peuvent facilement transférer des connaissances tacites aux autres, souvent au travers des histoires ou des démonstrations. Les travailleurs expérimentés peuvent transférer des connaissances tacites aux novices grâce à des contacts directs et par le dialogue, par exemple, par un encadrement ou par un tutorat.
  • La connaissance tacite est souvent le fruit de l'expérience personnelle, mais elle peut être également tirée de l'expérience des autres (apprentissage vicariant).
  • Par différence, la connaissance explicite est stockable dans des livres, des registres de comptabilités, des dépôts de brevets et des programmes de logiciels. Elle est plus facilement divisible et transférable que la connaissance tacite.

Cette approche fut développée en sociologie du travail également (K. C. Kusterer en 1978; B. Jones en 1982) suite à l'hypothèse de H. Braverman (1974). Selon celui-ci, la mécanisation des procédés entraîne une déqualification importante des ouvriers. Les études montrent au contraire, que même dans les entreprises soumises à une organisation de type taylorienne, où les tâches sont répétitives et formalisées, les routines de travail permettent aux opérateurs de développer des savoir-faire tacites indispensables aux opérations normales de production. Les connaissances sont bien assimilées par les individus et intégrées dans des comportements routiniers même s'ils n'en sont pas totalement conscients. Cependant, il est certain que l’organisation taylorienne classique bloque la transmission des savoirs explicites, de l’individu aux autres individus puisqu’elle n'a pas vocation à favoriser l’expression individuelle. Le passage du savoir tacite en savoir explicite s'en trouve réduit car le salarié n’y trouve pas une motivation certaine. Au contraire, il préfère garder sa zone d’autonomie.

Annexes

Notes et références

  1. Chez Ikujiro Nonaka et Hirotaka Takeuchi, 1995, les connaissances tacites sont assimilées à des connaissances implicites (les compétences, l'expérience, le savoir comment). Elles sont intégrées dans les comportements, les routines et les pratiques. De nombreux éléments de la connaissance durant le processus du travail sont acquis par l'expérience et ils restent généralement tacites. Dans l'organisation, les nouvelles méthodes de travail recherchent, dans une certaine mesure maintenant, de rendre explicites ces connaissances implicites.

    Chez d'autres auteurs, il existe une différence subtile.

    • 1992,
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      • R. S. W. Masters, "Knowledge, knerves and know-how. The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure", British Journal of Psychology, Vol 83, pp343-358
  2. Chester Barnard, 1938, The Functions of the Executive (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p291
  3. Friedrich Hayek, 1945, « The Use of Knowledge in Society », American Economic Review, vol. 35, p525, [lire en ligne]
  4. Quelquefois, la connaissance tacite s'apparente au « paradoxe de l'internalisation » : « Plus vous savez une chose, moins vous êtes conscient de la savoir ».


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    • Margherita Balconi, Andrea Pozzali et Riccardo Viale, The "codification debate" revisited: a conceptual framework to analyze the role of tacit knowledge in economics, Industrial Corporate Change, August, 16(5): 823-849
    • Elisa Giuliani, The wine industry: persistence of tacit knowledge or increased codification? Some implications for catching-up countries, Int. J. of Technology and Globalisation, Vol 3, n°2/3, pp138-154
    • Michael L. Irick, "Managing Tacit Knowledge In Organizations", Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol 8, n°3, September
    • C. Kikoski et D. Kikoski, "The Inquiring Organization––Tacit Knowledge, Conversation, and Knowledge Creation: Skills for 21st-Century Organizations", Greenwood Publishing Group, Portsmouth
    • Ping Lan, Tapping tacit knowledge on a digital platform, Int. J. of Learning and Intellectual Capital, Vol 4, n°3, pp315-330
    • Jonathan Perraton et Iona Tarrant, What does tacit knowledge actually explain?, Journal of Economic Methodology, Vol 14, n°3, September, pp353-370
  • 2008,
    • V. Ambrosini et C. Bowman, Surfacing tacit sources of success, Int. Small Bus. J., Vol 26, pp403-431
    • Zane Berge et Brenda C. Ledford, A Framework For Tacit Knowledge Transfer In A Virtual Team Environment, Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol 9, n°2, Juin
    • P. Busch, "Tacit Knowledge in Organizational Learning", IGI Publishing, Hershey
    • Laura Campoy, Amit Mitra, "Tacit knowledge, organisational memory: expectations and experiences in developing a knowledge warehouse", International Journal of Business Information Systems, Vol 3, n°6, pp686-697
    • David Dawley, Gary S. Insch et Nancy McIntyre, Tacit knowledge: a refinement and empirical test of the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale, The Journal of Psychology, 1er novembre
    • Keith Goffin et Ursula Koners, Capturing tacit knowledge in New Product Development: a study of Post-Project Reviews, Int. J. of Technology Intelligence and Planning, Vol 4, n°3, pp234-256
    • Salah Eldin Adam Hamza, "Competitive Advantage Via A Culture Of Knowledge Management: Transferring Tacit Knowledge Into Explicit", Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol 9, n°2, June
    • E. Hartmann et D. A. R. Seidler, "The use of tacit knowledge within innovative companies: Knowledge management in innovative enterprises", J. Knowl. Manage., 12, pp133-147
    • Naresh Kumar Agarwal, Danny C.C. Poo, "Capturing tacit knowledge across different domains: Knowledge Community (K-Comm), Int. J. of Business Information Systems, Vol 3, n°6, pp668-685
    • Tim E. Ray, "Tacit knowledge", In: S. R. Clegg et J. R. Bailey, dir., International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies, Thousand Oaks, Sage, pp1503-1507
    • Vlad Vaiman, Retention management as a means of protecting tacit knowledge in an organisation: a conceptual framework for professional services firms, Int. J. of Learning and Intellectual Capital, Vol 5, n°2, pp172-185
    • Edward Sek Wong, Explication of tacit knowledge in higher education institutional research through the criteria of professional practice action research approach: a focus group case study at an Australian University.(Case study), International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 1er janvier
  • 2017, Rana E. Jisr, Bassem E. Maamari, "Effectuation: Exploring a Third Dimension to Tacit Knowledge", Knowledge and Process Management, Vol 24, n°1, pp72-78

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