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Leadership transformationnel

De Wikiberal

La théorie du leadership transformationnel est une approche du leadership défendue entre autres, par Russell Ackoff, Bruce Avolio, Bernard Bass ou James Burns. Cette théorie pose comme hypothèse que les gens suivent une personne qui les inspire et qui leur donne une vision claire et convaincante. En retour, les subordonnés agissent avec un dévouement et une loyauté incontestables. Le leadership transformationnel cherche à élever le niveau de motivation et de moralité dans les organisations en faisant plus appel à des besoins intrinsèques de long terme et moins à une demande extrinsèque de court terme. Le leader est une personne qui est dotée d'une vision du futur et qui partage sa passion pour réaliser de grandes choses. Il fait avancer son projet en injectant l'enthousiasme et de l'énergie autour de lui(elle). Sa fin vient lorsqu'il(elle) impose la transformation malgré son impopularité.

La théorie du leadership transformationnel se distingue du leadership transactionnel. Ce dernier se concentre sur le rôle et les exigences de la tâche et il utilise des récompenses contingentes sur la performance. En revanche, le leadership transformationnel insiste sur le charisme[1] et le développement de la confiance mutuelle, en favorisant les capacités de leadership des autres individus, et en fixant des objectifs qui vont au-delà des besoins à court terme du groupe de travail.

Sommaire

Le leadership transformationnel mu par son énergie et son enthousiasme

Une organisation est transformée lorsque un leader joue un rôle important dans la création d'une vision et d'un but pour l'organisation. Les individus (suiveurs) s'inscrivent alors dans cette vision. Le «leader transformationnel» est celui qui prend la responsabilité pour la revitalisation de l'organisation. Il définit le besoin du changement, il crée de nouvelles visions, il mobilise l'engagement de ces visions, et finalement il transforme l'organisation.

John Adams identifie six thèmes émergents de l'organisation transformée :

  • (1) la vision et le but,
  • (2) de nouvelles perspectives (paradigmes),
  • (3) l'autonomisation humaine,
  • (4) la performance et l'excellence,
  • (5) le leadership
  • (6) l'organisation comme un domaine de l'énergie.

James Burns (1978) a déplacé l'attention du leader individuel vers un processus du leadership par son travail pionnier décrivant le leadership transactionnel et transformationnel. Sa théorie instaure la notion d'engagement des leaders et des suiveurs dans un processus du leadership efficace en reliant la nature des interactions entre le leader et les suiveurs. James Burns a défini le leadership «transformationnel» comme celui qui est une source d'inspiration, de motivation, et de relations humaines orientées vers l'obtention d'un soutien des suiveurs en faisant appel à des idéaux plus élevés et des valeurs comme la liberté, la justice, l'égalité et la paix. Le "leader transactionnel", de son côté, est intéressé de maintenir le statu quo et il motive les membres du groupe par des objectifs de récompenses qui sont dans la lignée de ceux des autres membres.

James Burns suggère qu'un individu n'a pas nécessairement besoin du titre de leader ou d'un pouvoir de position hiérarchique pour diriger ou pour transformer les autres, mais il peut provoquer le changement sur ​​la seule base de la nature de la relation et par sa capacité d'influence. Bernard Bass (1985) a complété ce travail en suggérant que les deux processus (transaction-transformation) ne sont pas mutuellement exclusifs, mais que l'efficacité du leadership est maximisé lorsque les deux éléments de transformation telles que la confiance et le respect, fonctionnent de concert avec des facteurs transactionnels tels que la clarification des objectifs et des facteurs de motivation.

La théorie du leadership transformationnel suppose que le leader dispose d'une vision, ils sont capables de préciser discursivement cette vision et ils sont dotés d'une passion pour réaliser de grandes choses en inspirant l'enthousiasme, en injectant de l'énergie, en fournissant un modèle de comportement qui soit cohérent avec cette vision, et ainsi de favoriser l'acceptation des objectifs individuels et collectifs, de transformer l'individu ou le groupe vers l'atteinte des objectifs et de fournir un soutien individualisé. Le leadership transformationnel modifie les valeurs de base, les croyances et les attitudes des suiveurs pour atteindre des buts plus élevés et d'effectuer un travail au-delà des niveaux minimums spécifiés par les leaders de l'organisation.

Les leaders transformationnels ont une vision d'excellence[2] et ils vendent leur vision et eux-mêmes dans le processus de la création de la confiance.

Bernard Bass a identifié quatre aspects d'un leadership transformationnel efficace, qui sont le charisme, l'inspiration, la stimulation intellectuelle et la considération. Un leader qui fait preuve de ces qualités inspire ses subordonnés à devenir performants et de mettre en avant l'intérêt à long terme de l'organisation par rapport à leur propre intérêt de court terme.

Le leadership transformationnel commence par le développement d'une vision qui convertit quelques adeptes potentiels. Cette vision peut être développée par le leader, par l'équipe en place ou elle peut émerger d'une large série de discussions. Le leader transformationnel saisit toutes les opportunités et il utilise donc tout ce qui fonctionne pour convaincre les autres de monter à bord du train en marche. Cela constitue son activité routinière en dosant son énergie auprès des plus convaincus comme des moindres. Le leader transformationnel crée de la confiance, en préservant son intégrité personnelle afin de convaincre plus de "disciples".

Les leaders transformationnels sont toujours visibles parmi leurs troupes et recherchent, par leur attitude et leurs actions, à montrer l'exemple de la façon dont tout le monde devrait se comporter. Ils donnent l'exemple et sont toujours au cœur de l'action. Afin de motiver leur peuple, ils utilisent des cérémonies, des rituels, et d'autres symbolisme culturel. Ils font aussi des efforts continus visant à motiver et à mobiliser leurs partisans, en faisant sans cesse faire le tour des leurs troupes, en les écoutant, en les apaisant et en déclenchant leur enthousiasme. Leur engagement indéfectible permet de calmer les doutes des adhérents, particulièrement dans les moments sombres ou incertains, où certains peuvent se demander si la vision est réellement atteignable. Si les gens ne croient pas qu'ils peuvent réussir, alors que leurs efforts va vaciller. Dans une métaphore prophylactique, le leader transformationnel vaccine ses troupes des infections conduisant potentiellement à la désaffection. Pour cela, il utilise une forme de rhétorique symbolique pour maintenir la motivation, en utilisant par exemple des cérémonies, des rituels et d'autres symboles culturels.

Certains chercheurs rapportent que les femmes leaders semblent avoir des caractéristiques plus transformationnelles que leurs homologues masculins, ce qui peut entraîner des niveaux plus élevés de cohésion du groupe et d'efficacité individuelle et organisationnelle. Kark (2004) propose une justification alternative plus rationnelle et suggère que l'association entre le genre et le leadership ne peut pas être aussi simpliste. Elle postule que les femmes peuvent sembler être plus efficaces parce qu'elles doivent répondre à des normes plus élevées pour atteindre des positions égales aux hommes. Et, un leadership autoritaire est une stratégie qui peut être susceptible de rencontrer de la résistance. Les femmes peuvent s'appuyer sur un leadership transformationnel pour commencer leur entrée en fonction comme si elles avaient besoin d'influencer les autres.

Un leader passionné par les réformes qui finit par échouer

Les leaders transformationnels sont souvent charismatiques, mais ils ne sont pas aussi narcissiques que les purs leaders charismatiques, qui réussissent grâce à une croyance en eux-mêmes plutôt que d'une croyance dans les autres. Le leadership transformationnel tombe quelquefois dans le pêché de la passion et de la trop grande confiance en lui qu'il peut facilement confondre avec la vérité et la réalité. S'il est vrai que de grandes choses ont été atteintes grâce à un leadership enthousiaste, il est également vrai que beaucoup de gens passionnés ont mené leurs concitoyens vers la catastrophe.

Le leader transformationnel a aussi tendance à voir la grande image, mais il a des difficultés à discerner les détails dans sa vision, d'où les problèmes qui émergent. S'il ne s'entoure pas des gens afin de prendre soin de ce niveau d'information, alors il est voué à l'échec. Enfin, la motivation du leader transformationnel, est par définition, de transformer. Or, lorsque l'organisation n'a pas besoin de transformation et les gens sont heureux comme ils sont, alors un tel leader sera frustré ou fera des transformations de force tels les dirigeants en temps de guerre ou les hommes politiques en tant de crise, appelant à la réforme malgré la résistance des citoyens. Ainsi, le leader perd de sa crédibilité s'il ne sait pas transformer son propre leadership.

Annexes

Notes et références

  1. Bernard Bass soutient que le leadership charismatique est moins susceptible d'émerger ou de s'épanouir dans une culture de transaction (bureaucratique), et il est plus probable de le faire dans une culture de transformation.
  2. La notion d'excellence fut le sujet d'un best-seller, "In Search of Excellence", où Tom Peters souligne le rôle du leader dans la création de l'entreprise et dans le maintien de la culture du succès. Un leader crée l'excellence dans une organisation par l'appariement de la culture du succès avec la stratégie de l'entreprise.

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    • Susan Bloch, "Positive deviants and their power on transformational leadership", Journal of Change Management, Vol 1, n°3, September, pp273-279
    • J. E. Bono et T. A. Judge, "Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership", Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), pp751-765
    • Brian J. Caldwell, "Scenarios for Leadership and Abandonment in the Transformation of Schools", School Effectiveness and School Improvement, Vol 11, n°4, December, pp475-499
    • Sally A. Carless, Alexander J. Wearing, Leon Mann, "A Short Measure of Transformational Leadership", Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol 14, n°3, Sep., pp389-405
    • Hershey H. Friedman et Mitchell Langbert, "Abraham as a Transformational Leader", The Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol 7, n°2, pp88-95
    • Martin H. Jason, "The Role of the Principal as Transformational Leader in a Multicultural Learning Community", The High School Journal, Vol 83, n°3, Feb. - Mar., pp1-9
    • Thomas D. Kane et Trueman R. Tremble, "Transformational leadership effects at different levels of the Army", Military Psychology, Vol 12, n°2, April, pp137-160
    • David Kelleher et Aruna Rao, "Leadership for social transformation: Some ideas and questions on institutions and feminist leadership", Gender & Development, Vol 8, n°3, November, pp74-79
    • Bobby J. Martinez et Charles L. Slater, "Transformational Leadership in the Planning of a Doctoral Program", The Educational Forum, Vol 64, n°4, December, pp308-316
  • 2001,
    • B. Alimo-Metcalfe et J. Alban-Metcalfe, "The development of a new Transformational Leadership Questionnaire", The Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 74, pp1-27
    • A. Azziz, J. C. Crotts et T. W. Kent, “Four factors of transformational leadership behaviour“, Leadership and Business Development Journal, Vol 22, n°5, pp221–229
    • Mike Bottery, "Globalisation and the UK Competition State : no room for transformational leadership in education ?", School Leadership and Management, 21 (2), June, pp199-218
    • Walter O. Einstein et John H. Humphreys, “Transforming Leadership: Matching Diagnostics to Leader Behaviors”, The Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol 8, n°1, pp48-60
    • Vicki L. Goodwin, J. C. Wofford, J. Lee Whittington, "A theoretical and empirical extension to the transformational leadership construct", Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Vol 22, n°7, Nov, pp759-774
    • Vicki L. Goodwin, J. Lee Whittington, Jerry C. Wofford, "Follower Motive Patterns As Situational Moderators For Transformational Leadership Effectiveness", Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol 13, n°2, Summer, pp196-211
    • James Haudan & Donald MacLean, "‘E’ is for engagement: Transforming your business by transforming your people", Journal of Change Management, Vol 2, n°3, September, pp255-265
    • Dong I. Jung, "Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Their Effects on Creativity in Groups", Creativity Research Journal, Vol 13, n°2, April, pp185-195
    • Dong I. Jung, et Francis J. Yammarino, “Perceptions of Transformational Leadership Among Asian Americans and Caucasian Americans: A Level of Analysis Perspective”, The Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol 8, n°1, pp3-21
    • John R. Sparks, Joseph A. Schenk, "Explaining the Effects of Transformational Leadership: An Investigation of the Effects of Higher-Order Motives in Multilevel Marketing Organizations", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 22, n°8, Dec., pp849-869
  • 2002,
    • H. Al-Dmour, R. A. Awamleh, "Effects of transactional and transformational leadership styles of sales managers on job satisfaction and self-perceived performance of sales people: A study of Jordanian manufacturing public shareholding companies", Dirasat: Administrative Sciences, 29, pp247-261
    • Bruce J. Avolio, Taly Dvir, Dov Eden, Boas Shamir, "Impact of Transformational Leadership on Follower Development and Performance: A Field Experiment", The Academy of Management Journal, Vol 45, n°4, Aug., pp735-744
    • James Brant et Melvin Sorcher, “Are You Picking the Right Leaders?”, Harvard Business Review, February, 78
    • R. Kark, B. Shamir, "The dual effect of transformational leadership: Priming relational and collective selves and further effects on followers", In: Bruce J. Avolio, F. J. Yammarino, dir., "Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead", Oxford, UK: Elsevier, pp7-91
    • Y. L. Jack Lam, "Defining the Effects of Transformational Leadership on Organisational Learning: A Cross-Cultural Comparison", School Leadership & Management, Vol 22, n°4, December, pp439-452
    • Ken W. Parry, Sarah B. Proctor-Thomson, "Perceived Integrity of Transformational Leaders in Organisational Settings", Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 35, n°2, Jan., pp75-96
    • A. Pinnington, D. Tourish, "Transformational leadership, corporate cultism and the spirituality paradigm: An unholy trinity in the workplace?", Human Relations, 55(2), pp147-172
      • Repris en 2009, In: Peter G. Northouse, dir., Leadership. Theory and Practice, SAGE
    • C. Welford, "Transformational leadership in nursing: Matching theory to practice", Nursing Management-UK, 9(4), pp7-11
  • 2003,
    • Bruce J. Avolio, Bernard M. Bass, Yair Berso et Dong I. Jung, "Predicting Unit Performance by Assessing Transformational and Transactional Leadership", Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, pp207–218
    • J. Blascovich, C. L. Hoyt, "Transformational and transactional leadership in virtual and physical environments", Small Group Research, 34, pp678–715
    • Joyce E. Bono, Timothy A. Judge, "Self-Concordance at Work: Toward Understanding the Motivational Effects of Transformational Leaders", The Academy of Management Journal, Vol 46, n°5, Oct., pp554-571
    • J. M. Burns, "Transforming leadership: A new pursuit of happiness", New York: Publisher Group West
    • G. Chen, R. Kark, B. Shamir, "The two faces of transformational leadership: Empowerment and dependency", Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, pp246-255
    • J. F. Cox, G. Ball, C. L. Pearce, H. P. Sims Jr, E. Schnell, K. A. Smith et L. Trevino, “Transactors, transformers and beyond: a multi-method development of a theoretical typology of leadership”, Journal of Management Development, Vol 22, n°4, pp273–307
    • Violet Eudine Barriteau, "Constrcting a conceptual framework for developin Women's Transformational Leadership in the Caribean", Social and Economic Studies, Vol 52, n°4, Focus on Gender II (December), pp5-48
    • K. Boehnke, N. Bontis, J. J. DiStefano, A. C. DiStefano, “Transformational leadership: An examination of cross-national differences and similarities”, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol 24, n°1, pp5-15
    • J. E. Bono et T. A. Judge, "Self-concordance at work: Toward understanding the motivational effects of transformational leaders", Academy of Management Journal, 46, pp554-571
    • James M. Burns, "Transforming Leadership: The Pursuit of Happiness", New York: Atlantic Monthly Press
    • Ling Chen et Vivian C. Sheer, "Do superiors' intranet use predict their transformational leadership?, Asian Journal of Communication, Vol 13, n°1, January, pp120-136
    • Patrick W. Corrigan, Deborah Davis-Lenane, Andrew N. Garman, "Factor Structure of the Transformational Leadership Model in Human Service Teams", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 24, n°6, (Sep.), pp803-812
    • Michael E. Dantley, "Critical spirituality: enhancing transformative leadership through critical theory and African American prophetic spirituality", International Journal of Leadership in Education, Vol 6, n°1, January, pp3-17
    • T. Dvir et Boas Shamir, "Follower developmental characteristics as predictors of predicting transformational leadership: A longitudinal field study", The Leadership Quarterly, 14, pp327-344
    • A. H. Eagly, M. C. Johannesen-Schmidt, M. L. van Engen, "Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men", Psychological Bulletin, 129, pp569-591
    • W. O. Einstein et J. H. Humphreys, “Nothing new under the sun: transformational leadership from a historical perspective“, Journal of Management History, Vol 44, n°1, pp85–95
    • H. H. Friedman, M. Langbert, "Perspectives on Transformational Leadership in the Sanhedrin of Ancient Judaism", Management Decision: Focus on Management History, Vol 41, n°2, pp199-207
    • Philip Hallinger, "Leading Educational Change: reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership", Cambridge Journal of Education, Vol 33, n°3, November, pp329-352
    • Hilde Hetland & Gro Sandal, "Transformational leadership in Norway: Outcomes and personality correlates", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 12, n°2, June, pp147-170
    • John J. Lawler, Fred Ochieng Walumbwa, "Building effective organizations: transformational leadership, collectivist orientation, work-related attitudes and withdrawal behaviours in three emerging economies", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 14, n°7, October, pp1083-1101
    • Barbara Mandell, Shilpa Pherwani, "Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Style: A Gender Comparison", Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol 17, n°3, Mar., pp387-404
    • K. Patterson, R. F. Russell, A. G. Stone, "Transformational versus servant leadership: a difference in leader focus", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(4), pp349-361
    • Shung Jae Shin, Jing Zhou, "Transformational Leadership, Conservation, and Creativity: Evidence from Korea", The Academy of Management Journal, Vol 46, n°6, Dec., pp703-714
  • 2004,
    • Linda Aldoory & Elizabeth Toth, "Leadership and Gender in Public Relations: Perceived Effectiveness of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles", Journal of Public Relations Research, Vol 16, n°2, April, pp157-183
    • Bruce J. Avolio, Puja Bhatia, William Koh, Weichun Zhu, "Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment: Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment and Moderating Role of Structural Distance", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 25, n°8, Dec., pp951-968
    • Bruce J. Avolio et Y. Berson, "Transformational leadership and the dissemination of organizational goals: A case study of a telecommunications firm", The Leadership Quarterly, 15(5), pp625-646
    • T. T. Baldwin, W. H. Bommer et R. S. Rubin, "Setting the stage for effective leadership: Antecedents of transformational leadership behavior", Leadership Quarterly, 15, pp195-210
    • J. E. Bono et T. A. Judge, "Personality and transformational and transactional Leadership: A meta-analysis", Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, pp901-910
    • Wibecke Brun, Jarle Eid, Bjorn H. Johnsen, John Chr. Laberg, John K. Nyhus & Gerry Larsson, "Situation Awareness and Transformational Leadership in Senior Military Leaders: An Exploratory Study", Military Psychology, Vol 16, n°3, August, pp203-209
    • James M. Burns, "Transforming Leadership", Grove Press, ISBN 0802141188, ISBN 9780802141187
    • D. Charbonneaue, "Influence tactics and perceptions of transformational leadership", The Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol 25, n°7, pp565-576
    • Youmna Chlala, Anasuya Sengupta, Nyambura Ngugi & Shamillah Wilson, "Transformative leadership: the ‘now’ and ‘future’ of the movement", Agenda, Vol 18, n°60, January, pp62-66
    • David V. Day, Stanley M. Halpin, Stephen J. Zaccaro, dir., "Leader Development for Transforming Organizations: Growing Leaders for Tomorrow", Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
    • Mahmoud A. Elgamal, "The Direct and Mediating Effects of Transactional and Transformational Leadership: A Comparative Approach", Journal of Transnational Management Development, Vol 9, n°2-3, August, pp148-169
    • M. A. Griffin, A. E. Rafferty, "Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions", The Leadership Quarterly, 15, pp329‐354
    • James Griffith, "Relation of principal transformational leadership to school staff job satisfaction, staff turnover, and school performance", Journal of Educational Administration, Vol 42, n°3, pp333-356
    • T. A. Judge et R. F. Piccolo, "Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity", Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, pp755–768
    • R. Kark, "The transformational leader: who is (s)he? A feminist perspective", Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 16
    • K. A. Patterson, R. F. Russell et A. G. Stone, Transformational versus Servant Leadership - A Difference in Leader Focus", Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, Vol 25, n°4, pp349-361
    • Robert F. Russell et Bruce A. Tucker, "The influence of the Transformational Leader", Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), Spring, pp103-111
    • K. Sanders, B. Schyns, "Impliciete leiderschapstheorieën en de perceptie van transformationeel leiderschap: een replicatie van Duits onderzoek"(Implicit leadership theories and the perception of transformational leadership: A replication of German research) (Les théories du leadership implicite et la perception du leadership transformationnel : Une réplication de la recherche allemande), Gedrag en Organisatie, 17, pp143-154
    • Marshall Sashkin, “Transformational Leadership Approaches: A Review and Synthesis”, In: John Antonakis, Anna T. Cianciolo et Robert J. Sternberg, dir., "The Nature of Leadership", Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Chap. 8
    • S. L. Shivers-Blackwell, "Using role theory to examine determinants of transformational and transactional leader behavior", Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10, pp41-50
    • W. Torbert, "Action inquiry: The secret of timely and transforming leadership", San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler
  • 2005,
    • David M. Boje and Carl Rhodes, The Virtual Leader Construct: The mass mediatization and simulation of transformational leadership, Leadership, 1(4), 407.
      • Repris en 2009, In: Peter G. Northouse, dir., Leadership. Theory and Practice, SAGE
    • William H. Bommer, David C. Munz, Robert S. Rubin, "Leading from within: The Effects of Emotion Recognition and Personality on Transformational Leadership Behavior", The Academy of Management Journal, Vol 48, n°5, Oct., pp845-858
    • William H. Bommer, Gregory A. Rich, Robert S. Rubin, "Changing Attitudes about Change: Longitudinal Effects of Transformational Leader Behavior on Employee Cynicism about Organizational Change", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 26, n°7, Nov., pp733-753
    • Jo Ann Brown, M. Ronald Buckley, Walter Davis, Fred Dorn et Milorad M. Novicevic, "Barnard on conflicts of responsibility: Implications for today's perspectives on transformational and authentic leadership, Management Decision, Vol 43, n°10, pp1396-1409
    • F. William Brown, Dan Moshavi, "Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence: A Potential Pathway for an Increased Understanding of Interpersonal Influence", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 26, n°7, Nov., pp867-871
    • C. B. Crawford, "Effects of transformational leadership and organizational position on knowledge management", Journal of Knowledge Management, 9 (6), pp6-16
    • Elizabeth A. Fisher, "Facing the Challenges of Outcomes Measurement. The Role of Transformational Leadership", Administration in Social Work, Vol 29, n°4, October, pp35-49
    • Rick D. Hackett, Hui Wang, Kenneth S. Law, Duanxu Wang, Zhen Xiong Chen, "Leader-Member Exchange as a Mediator of the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Followers' Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior", The Academy of Management Journal, Vol 48, n°3, Jun., pp420-432
    • R. S. Hinds, "Consideration of the Relationship Between Spiritual Well-Being and Transformational Leadership", Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 10(2), pp124-139
    • Kimberly Hopkins Perttula, Gretchen M. Spreitzer, Katherine Xin, "Traditionality Matters: An Examination of the Effectiveness of Transformational Leadership in the United States and Taiwan", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 26, n°3, May, pp205-227
    • J. H. Humphreys, “Contextual implications for transformational and servant leadership: a historical investigation“, Management Decision, Vol 43, n°10, pp1410–1431
    • N. Jabnoun, A. Juma, A. L. Rasasi, "Transformational leadership and service quality in UAE hospitals", Managing Service Quality, 15(1), pp70-81
    • Doris Jantzi et Kenneth Leithwood, "A Review of Transformational School Leadership Research 1996–2005", Leadership and Policy in Schools, Vol 4, n°3, September, pp177-199
    • N. Khatri, "An alternative model of transformational leadership", Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, 9(2), pp19-26
    • Venkat R. Krishnan, "Leader-Member Exchange, Transformational Leadership, and Value System", EJBO Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, Vol 10, n°1, pp14-21
    • Venkat R. Krishnan, Alpana Priyabhashini, "Transformational Leadership and Follower's Career Advancement: Role of Pygmalion Effect", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol 40, n°4, Apr., pp482-499
    • Nancy L. Mary, "Transformational Leadership in Human Service Organizations", Administration in Social Work, Vol 29, n°2, February, pp105-118
    • Graham Neale, "Transformational Leadership", BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol 331, n°7516, Sep. p560
    • Ken W Parry et Paresha N Sinha, "Researching the Trainability of Transformational Organizational Leadership", Human Resource Development International, Vol 8, n°2, June, pp165-183
    • Micha Popper, "Leaders who transform society: what drives them and why we are attracted", Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 027598561X, ISBN 9780275985615
    • Hettie A. Richardson, Robert J. Vandenberg, "Integrating Managerial Perceptions and Transformational Leadership into a Work-Unit Level Model of Employee Involvement", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 26, n°5, Aug., pp561-589
  • 2006,
    • John E. Barbuto et Mark E. Burbach, "The Emotional Intelligence of Transformational Leaders: A Field Study of Elected Officials", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 146, n°1, February, pp51-64
    • Julian Barling, Cecilia Elving, Erin M. Reid, Sean Tucker, Nick Turner, "Apologies and Transformational Leadership", Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 63, n°2, Jan., pp195-207
    • Bernard M. Bass & E. G. Riggio, "Transformational Leadership", Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2nde édition
    • Joyce E. Bono & Jessica Dzieweczynski, Radostina K. Purvanova, "Transformational Leadership, Job Characteristics, and Organizational Citizenship Performance", Human Performance, Vol 19, n°1, January, pp1-22
    • David De Cremer, "When authorities influence followers' affect: The interactive effect of procedural justice and transformational leadership", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 13, n°3, September, pp322-351
    • Eddie Denessen, Samuel Nguni, Peter Sleegers, "Transformational and transactional leadership effects on teachers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in primary schools: The Tanzanian case", School Effectiveness and School Improvement, Vol 17, n°2, June, pp145-177
    • J. V. Denhardt et K. B. Campbell, "The role of democratic values in transformational leadership", Administration and Society, 38 (5), pp556-572
      • Repris en 2009, In: Peter G. Northouse, dir., Leadership. Theory and Practice, SAGE
    • Jarle Eid, Olav Kjellevold Olsen, Bjørn Helge Johnsen, "Moral Behavior and Transformational Leadership in Norwegian Naval Cadets", Military Psychology, Vol 18, n°3, July, ppS37-S56
    • Corrie Giles, "Transformational Leadership in Challenging Urban Elementary Schools: A Role for Parent Involvement?", Leadership and Policy in Schools, Vol 5, n°3, September, pp257-282
    • Peter Gray et John A. Ross, "Transformational leadership and teacher commitment to organizational values: The mediating effects of collective teacher efficacy", School Effectiveness and School Improvement, Vol 17, n°2, June, pp179-199
    • Doris Jantzi et Kenneth Leithwood, "Transformational school leadership for large-scale reform: Effects on students, teachers, and their classroom practices", School Effectiveness and School Improvement, Vol 17, n°2, June, pp201-227
    • Tom Karp, "Transforming organisations for organic growth: The DNA of change leadership", Journal of Change Management, Vol 6, n°1, March, pp3-20
    • Kenneth Leithwood & Peter Sleegers, "Transformational school leadership: Introduction", School Effectiveness and School Improvement, Vol 17, n°2, June, pp143-144
    • Joseph S. Nye Jr., "Transformational Leadership and U.S. Grand Strategy", Foreign Affairs, Vol 85, n°4, Jul. - Aug., pp139-145, pp147-148
    • S. Parameshwar, “Inventing higher purpose through suffering: The transformation of the transformational leader”, Leadership Quarterly, 17:5, pp454-474
    • Jens Rowold, "Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Martial Arts", Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, Vol 18, n°4, December, pp312-325
    • Robert J. Spinelli, "The Applicability of Bass's Model of Transformational, Transactional, and Laissez-Faire Leadership in the Hospital Administrative Environment", Hospital Topics, Vol 84, n°2, April, pp11-19
  • 2007,
    • Shane Blum, Sheila Scott-Halsell, Steven R. Shumate, "Using a Model of Emotional Intelligence Domains to Indicate Transformational Leaders in the Hospitality Industry", Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, Vol 7, n°1, December, pp99-113
    • Graeme Currie et Andy Lockett, "A critique of transformational leadership: Moral, professional and contingent dimensions of leadership within public services organizations", Human Relations, February, vol 60, n°2, pp341-370
    • Jeffrey Glanz, "On vulnerability and transformative leadership: an imperative for leaders of supervision", International Journal of Leadership in Education, Vol 10, n°2, April, pp115-135
    • J. P. Kotter, "Leading Change: Why Transformational Efforts Fail", Harvard Business Review, January, pp96-103
    • Thomas J. Kramer, commentaire de la seconde édition du livre de Bernard M. Bass & E. G. Riggio, "Transformational Leadership", The Psychologist-Manager Journal, Vol 10, n°2, October, pp152-155
    • Cath Lambert, "New Labour, New leaders? Gendering Transformational Leadership", British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol 28, n°2, Mar., pp149-163
    • K. Maslin-Wicks, “Forsaking transformational leadership: the great senator from New York”, Leadership Quarterly, 18:5, pp463-476
    • Satyanarayana Parayitam, Nicholas W. Twigg, "Spirituality As A Determinant Of Transformational Leadership: Moderating Effects Of Religious Orientation", Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, Vol 4, n°3, January, pp326-354
  • 2008,
    • Julian Barling, Amy Christie, Nick Turner, "Pseudo-Transformational Leadership: Towards the Development and Test of a Model", Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 81, n°4, Sep., pp851-861
    • Carmen Barroso Castro, José carlos Casillas Bueno, Ma Mar Villegas Periñan, "Transformational leadership and followers' attitudes: The mediating role of psychological empowerment", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 19, n°10, october, pp1842-1863
    • Sten-Olof Brenner, Karina Nielsen, Raymond Randall, Joanna Yarker, "The effects of transformational leadership on followers’ perceived work characteristics and psychological well-being: A longitudinal study", Work & Stress, Vol 22, n°1, January, pp16-32
    • Peter Eckel et Adrianna Kezar, "Advancing diversity agendas on campus: examining transactional and transformational presidential leadership styles", International Journal of Leadership in Education, Vol 11, n°4, October, pp379-405
    • H. Erkutlu, "The impact of transformational leadership on organizational and leadership effectiveness: The Turkish case", The Journal of Management Development, 27(7), pp708-726
    • V. J. Garcia-Morales, F. J. Llorens-Montes, A. J. Verdu-Jover, "The effects of transformational leadership on organizational performance through knowledge and innovation", British Journal of Management, 19, pp299–319
    • Joseph E. Justin, Robert P. Vecchio, Craig L. Pearce, "The utility of transactional and transformational leadership for predicting performance and satisfaction within a path-goal theory framework", Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, Vol 81, n°1, pp71-82
    • Parilah Mohd Shah et Aminuddin Yusof, "Transformational Leadership and Leadership Substitutes in Sports: Implications on Coaches’ Job Satisfaction", International Bulletin of Business Administration, n°3
    • Alejandra Navarro-Smith, "Leadership transformation and the exercise of power: political divisions in San Jerónimo Tulijá, Chiapas", Identities, Vol 15, n°5, September, pp528-549
    • James S. Pounder, "Transformational Leadership: Practicing What We Teach in the Management Classroom", Journal of Education for Business, Vol 84, n°1, September, pp2-6
    • James S. Pounder, "Transformational classroom leadership: a novel approach to evaluating classroom performance", Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol 33, n°3, June, pp233-243
  • 2009,
    • Calum A. Arthur, Nichola Callow, Lew Hardy, James Hardy, Matthew J. Smith, "Measurement of Transformational Leadership and its Relationship with Team Cohesion and Performance Level", Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, Vol 21, n°4, October, pp395-412
    • P. A. Balthazard, D. A. Waldman, J. E. Warren, "Predictors of the emergence of transformational leadership in virtual decision teams", The Leadership Quarterly, 20(5)
    • Ilir Boga & Nurcan Ensari, "The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success", The Psychologist-Manager Journal, Vol 12, n°4, November, pp235-251
    • J. E. Bono et R. K. Purvanova, "Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams", The Leadership Quarterly, 20(3)
    • Hsien-Wen Chen, Jen-Wei Cheng, Wei-Chi Tsai, "Employee positive moods as a mediator linking transformational leadership and employee work outcomes", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 20, n°1, January, pp206-219
    • H. Chia-Hung, L. I. Chung-Kai, "The influence of transformational leadership on workplace relationships and job performance", Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 37, pp1129-1142
    • S. Chien, C. Chiu, H. Lin, "Transformational leadership and team behavioral integration: The mediating role of team learning", Academy of Management Proceedings, pp1-6
    • M. D. Howarth, A. E. Rafferty, "Transformational leadership and organizational change: The impact of vision content and delivery", Academy of Management Proceedings, pp1-6
    • Matthew M. Mars, "Student Entrepreneurs as Agents of Organizational Change and Social Transformation: a Grassroots Leadership Perspective", Journal of Change Management, Vol 9, n°3, September, pp339-357
    • Karina Nielsen & Fehmidah Munir, "How do transformational leaders influence followers' affective well-being? Exploring the mediating role of self-efficacy", Work & Stress, Vol 23, n°4, October, pp313-329
    • J. Parolini, K. Patterson, B. Winston, "Distinguishing between transformational and servant-leadership", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 30, pp274–291
    • Renée S.M. de Reuver et Marianne van Woerkom, "Predicting excellent management performance in an intercultural context: a study of the influence of multicultural personality on transformational leadership and performance", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 20, n°10, October, pp2013-2029
  • 2010,
    • Susan W. Arendt, Eric A. Brown, "Perceptions of Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Subordinates' Performance in Hotels", Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, Vol 10, n°1, November, pp45-59
    • Julian Barling, Mark R. Beauchamp, Katie L. Morton, Ryan E. Rhodes, Louise C. Mâsse, Bruno D. Zumbo, "Extending transformational leadership theory to parenting and adolescent health behaviours: an integrative and theoretical review", Health Psychology Review", Vol 4, n°2, September, pp128-157
    • San Bolkan & Alan K. Goodboy, "Transformational Leadership in the Classroom: The Development and Validation of the Student Intellectual Stimulation Scale", Communication Reports, Vol 23, n°2, October, pp91-105
    • Abby M. Brooks, Kenneth J. Levine, Robert A. Muenchen, "Measuring Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: Why isn't Charisma Measured?", Communication Monographs, Vol 77, n°4, December, pp576-591
    • Jörg Felfe, Sabine Korek, Ute Zaepernick-Rothe, "Transformational leadership and commitment: A multilevel analysis of group-level influences and mediating processes", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 19, n°3, June, pp364-387
    • Sam Gladding, Geri Miller, Carol Marchel, "From Inhumane to Humane: A Longitudinal Study of Leadership Transformation", The Humanistic Psychologist, Vol 38, n°3, August, pp221-235
    • Remus Ilies et Matthias Spitzmuller, "Do they [all] see my true self? Leader's relational authenticity and followers' assessments of transformational leadership", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 19, n°3, June, pp304-332
    • M. Inness, N. Turner et al., "Transformational leadership and employee safety performance: A within-groups, between-jobs design", Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, pp279-290
    • Lilli Ruth Rosenberg, "Transforming leadership: reflective practice and the enhancement of happiness", Reflective Practice, Vol 11, n°1, February, pp9-18
  • 2011,
    • Les Bell et Phil Smith, "Transactional and transformational leadership in schools in challenging circumstances: a policy paradox", Management in Education, April, Vol 25, pp58-61
    • Ben Binsardi, Jonathan Cartmell, Alexis McLean, "Sector-wide transformational leadership – how effectively is the EFQM Excellence Model® used in the UK FE sector?", Research in Post-Compulsory Education, Vol 16, n°2, June, pp189-214
    • S. Burghardt, Sarah Ferguson, W. Tolliver, "Stories of Transformative Leadership in the Human Services: Why the Glass is Always Full", Journal of Community Practice, Vol 19, n°2, April, pp201-203
    • Wen-Yu Chen et Chia-Yuan Hsu, "Subordinates' perception of managers' transformational leadership style and satisfaction: a comparison of electronic manufacturing companies in Mainland China and Taiwan", The International Journal of Human Resource Management
    • Aichia Chuang, Timothy A. Judge & Yuann Jun Liaw, "Transformational leadership and customer service: A moderated mediation model of negative affectivity and emotion regulation", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
    • Cathy Driscoll, E. Kevin Kelloway, Elizabeth Kelley, Margaret C. McKee, "Exploring linkages among transformational leadership, workplace spirituality and well-being in health care workers", Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, Vol 8, n°3, September, pp233-255
    • Elizabeth V. Hobman, Chris J. Jackson, Nerina L. Jimmieson, Robin Martin, "The effects of transformational leadership behaviours on follower outcomes: An identity-based analysis", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 20, n°4, August, pp553-580
    • Wendelin M. Kuepers, "'Trans- + -form": Leader- and followership as an embodied, emotional and aesthetic practice for creative transformation in organisations", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol 32, n°1, pp20-40
    • Steven Si & Feng Wei, "Transformational and transactional leaderships, empowerment climate, and innovation performance: A multilevel analysis in the Chinese context", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
    • Guy Moors, "The effect of response style bias on the measurement of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
    • Arwiphawee Srithongrung, "The Causal Relationships among Transformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, and Employee Effectiveness", International Journal of Public Administration, Vol 34, n°6, May, pp376-388



Leadership and organizational transformation Alan Bryman, David Gillingwater & Iain McGuinness International Journal of Public Administration Volume 19, Issue 6, January 1996, pages 849-872

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