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Alfred Schutz

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(Redirigé depuis Alfred Schütz)
Alfred Schutz
sociologue

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Schutz.jpg
Tendance école autrichienne
Origine Autriche Autriche
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inter lib.org sur Alfred Schutz

Alfred Schutz est un philosophe en sciences sociales d'origine autrichienne et célèbre pour sa sociologie phénoménologique[1].


Biographie

Alfred Schutz est né à Vienne le 13 avril 1899 et mort le 20 mai 1959 à New York.

Après des études en droit, en économie et en sociologie à l’Université de Vienne, il obtient un doctorat en philosophie du droit sous la direction de Hans Kelsen en 1921. Il travaille d'abord comme avocat d’affaires.

Il a participé aux séminaires organisé par Ludwig von Mises à Vienne. Là, il se lie d'amitiés avec Felix Kaufmann, Fritz Machlup et Erich Voegelin. Fuyant Hitler en 1938, il retrouve un poste dans la même société à la Reitler and Company de Paris. À la fin du mois d'août 1938, en compagnie d'économistes et d'intellectuels libéraux, il prend part au colloque Walter Lippmann qui a lieu à Paris.

En 1939, au déclenchement de la guerre, il fuit à New York. Il a influencé la nouvelle génération d'économistes de l'école autrichienne (Don Lavoie, Peter Boettke, Richard Ebeling) sur le rapprochement de l'herméneutique et de l'économie. Il a permis également de faire comprendre le concept d'intersubjectivité.

Alfred Schutz a commencé à synthétiser la phéménologie d'Edmund Husserl, la construction méthodologique de "l'idéal type[2]" de Max Weber, le «vitalisme» d'Henri Bergson avec le subjectivisme de l'école autrichienne d'économie. En développant une psychologie phénoménologique, Alfred Schutz, reconnait la connaissance humaine comme un système de typifications, un système de stéréotypes et de méthodes qui aident les individus à guider leurs activités quotidiennes.

Notes et références

  1. La sociologie phénoménologique d’Alfred Schütz, comme l'analyse conversationnelle d’Erving Goffman et l’ethnométhodologie de Harold Garfinkel constituent les branches de l'interactionnisme.
  2. Le concept d'idéal-types' a été créé par Max Weber en 1922 en réponse à la Methodenstreit (Conflits par rapport aux méthodes scientifiques en sciences sociales) entre l'école autrichienne d'économie et de l'école historique allemande. Le problème, pour Max Weber, était de savoir comment former des concepts généraux et universels sur l'action humaine lorsque ces concepts sont présents à des degrés différents dans chacun des acteurs. Les particularités de l'idéal-type sont extraites d'une classe de population qui le rendent unique. La méthode de l'idéal type implique forcément une construction hypothétique de différentes catégories.
    • 2006, M. S. Morgan, "Economic Man as Model Man: Ideal Types, Idealization and Caricatures", Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 28(1), pp1-27

Bibliographie

  • 1930, Verstehen und Handeln, Notes pour une conférence, Miseskreis 27 June 1930, traduit par “Understanding and Acting in Political Economy and Other Social Sciences
    • Repris en 1996, Helmut Wagner, George Psathas et Fred Kersten, Dir., Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp84—87
  • 1932, Der Sinnhafte Aufbau der Sozialen Welt. Vienna: Julius Springer
    • Traduction anglaise en 1967, The Phenomenology of the Social World, Evanston: Northwestern University Press
  • 1934, Collected Papers IV
    • Nouvelle édition en 1996, Helmut Wagner, George Psathas et Fred Kersten, Dir., Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers
  • 1934, “Staat-Gesellschaft-Recht-Wirtschaft.” Commentaire du livre de Ludwig von Mises, Grundprobleme der Nationalökonomie. Deutsche Literaturzeitung 1 (janvier): 36–42. Traduit par : “Basic Problems of Political Economy”
    • Repris en 1996, Helmut Wagner, George Psathas et Fred Kersten, Dir., Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Pp. 88–92
  • 1943, “The Problem of Rationality in the Social World.” Economica 10:130–49
    • Repris en 1964, In: Collected Papers II: Studies in Social Theory. Arvin Brodersen, ed. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Pp. 64–88
  • 1951, Choosing among Projects of Action, Philosophy and Phenomenological, Research 12: 161–84
    • Repris en 1962, Collected Papers I: The Problem of Social Reality. Maurice Natanson, ed. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Pp. 67–96
  • 1953, “Common-Sense and Scientific Interpretation of Human Action”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 14: 1–37
    • Repris en 1966, Collected Papers III: Studies in Phenomenological Philosophy, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Pp. 3–47
  • 1954, “Concept and Theory Formation in the Social Sciences”, Journal of Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 14, pp1-38
  • 1962, The Problem of Social Reality, In: Collected Papers, vol. I, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, pp3-96
  • 1970, On Phenomenology and Social Relations, publié avec une introduction de Helmut R. Wagner. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press
  • 1973, avec Thomas Luckmann, The Structures of the Life-World, Vol 1, Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press
- Nouvelle édition en 1983
- Nouvelle édition en 1989
  • 1989, avec Thomas Luckmann, The Structures of the Life-World, Vol 2, Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press

Littérature secondaire

  • 1962, Maurice Natanson, dir., "Collected Papers I, The Problem of Social Reality", The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff
  • 1964, A. Brodersen, dir., "Collected Papers II, Studies in Social Theory", The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff
  • 1966, Ilse Schutz, dir., "Collected Papers III, Studies in Phenomenological Philosophy", The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff
  • 1970,
    • Maurice Natanson, dir., "Phenomenology and Social Reality: Essays in Memory of Alfred Schutz", The Hague: Martinus Nijhof
    • Richard Zaner, "Alfred Schutz: Reflections on the Problem of Relevance", New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, articles écrits entre 1947 et 1959
  • 1972, Barry Hindess, "The 'Phenomenological' Sociology of Alfred Schutz", Economy and Society, n°1, pp1-27
  • 1975,
    • Robert A Gorman, “Alfred Schutz – An Exposition and Critique, ” The British Journal of Sociology 26 (1)
    • Patrick N. Peritore, Some Problems in Alfred Schutz’s Phenomenological Methodology, The American Political Science Review 69 (1)
    • Andrew J. Weigert, Alfred Schutz on a Theory of Motivation, The Pacific Sociological Review 18 (1)
  • 1977, Robert A Gorman, The Dual Vision: Alfred Schutz and the myth of phenomenological social science. Boston, MA: Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • 1978, Richard Grathoff, “Alfred Schutz” In Klassiker des Soziologisches Denkens: Band II. Dirk Käsler, ed. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck, pp388–416
  • 1979, Anthony Giddens, Schütz and Parsons: Problems of Meaning and Subjectivity, Contemporary Sociology, 8(5), pp682-685
    • Traduit en espagnol en 1999, “Schutz y Parsons: problemas del 2. sentido y la subjetividad”, In: Perla Aronson et Horacio Conrado, dir., La teoría social de Anthony Giddens, Buenos Aires: Eudeba
  • 1980, David Zaret, From Weber to Parsons and Schutz: the Eclipse of History in Modern Social Theory, American Journal of Sociology; 80:5, pp1180-1201
  • 1983, Helmut Wagner, "Alfred Schutz An Intellectual Biography", Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  • 1984,
    • Ingeborg K. Helling, “Alfed Schutz and Felix Kaufmann: Sociology Between Science and Interpretation, Human Studies 7 (2): 141–61
    • Helmut R. Wagner, Schutz’s Life Story and the Understanding of His Work, Human Studies 7 (2): 107–16
  • 1985,
    • K. R. Baugh Jr et R. P. Mohan, Husserl, Sch¨utz, and Garfinkel: Some Continuities and Contrasts, Quarterly Journal of Ideology, 9(1): 2–12
    • Christopher Prendergast, Commentaire du livre de Helmut R. Wagner. Alfred Schutz: An Intellectual Biography, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, Vol 21, Issue 3, pp253 - 255
  • 1986,
    • L. Langsdorf, Making Sense of Reification: Alfred Schütz and the Constructionist Theory, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 16(2), pp262–264
    • Maurice Natanson, Anonymity. A Study in the Philosophy of Alfred Schutz, Indiana University Press, Bloomington
    • Christopher Prendergast, Alfred Schutz and the Austrian School of Economics, The American Journal of Sociology 92 (1), pp1–26
  • 1987, M. C. Di Gregori, Les critiques de Schutz à l'analyse husserlienne de l'intersubjectivité, Revista latinoamericana de filosofía, vol 13, n°2, pp221-230
  • 1988,
    • Thomas S. Eberle, “Die deskriptive Analyse der Oekonomie durch Alfred Schutz”, In Alfred Schutz: Neue Beiträge zur Rezeption seines Werkes. Elisabeth List and Ilja Srubar, eds. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp69–120
    • Ingeborg K. Helling, “Alfred Schutz, Felix Kaufmann, and the Economists of the Mises Circle: Personal and Methodological Continuities, In: Alfred Schutz: Neue Beiträge zur Rezeption seines Werkes. Elisabeth List and Ilja Srubar, eds. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp43–68
  • 1990,
    • Richard Grathoff, "Finiten" in den "Finite Provinces of Meaning" von Alfred Schütz (About the Concept of the "Finite" in Alfred Schutz' "Finite Provinces of Meaning"), Critique and Humanism Journal, n°1, pp25-37
    • Kolyo Koev, Alfred Schutz and the Problem of Every Day Life Average Structures, Critique and Humanism Journal, n°1, pp54-64
    • Ilja Srubar, Wertbeziehung und Relevanz. Zu Schütz' Weber-Rezeption (Value-Reference and Relevance. On the Reception of Max Weber by Alfred Schutz), Critique and Humanism Journal, n°1, pp38-53
  • 1992,
    • J. J. Chriss, How Is Society Possible? Intersubjectivity and the Fiduciary Attitude as Problems of the Social Group in Mead, Gurwitsch, and Schütz, Contemporary Sociology—A Journal of Reviews, 21(2): 283–284
    • K. Nishihara, "Schutz in Japan: A Brief History," Human Studies, 15, 1 pp17-34
  • 1993,
    • Hartmut Esser, The Rationality of Everyday Behavior: A Rational Choice Reconstruction of the Theory of Action by Alfred Schutz, Rationality and Society 5 (1):7–31
    • Hartmut Esser, “How ‘Rational’ Is the Choice of ‘Rational Choice’? A Response to Randall Collins, Christopher Prendergast, and Ilja Srubar.” Rationality and Society 5 (3):408–14
    • M. Gabriel, "Alfred Schütz und die Theorie des Handelns als rationale Wahl," Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie, 18, 1, pp70-79
    • Christopher Prendergast, Rationality, Optimality, and Choice: Esser’s Reconstruction of Alfred Schutz’s Theory of Action, Rationality and Society 5 (1): 47–57
    • Jeremy Shearmur, Schütz, Machlup and Rational Economic Man: Some Problems for Economic Imperialism?”, Review of Political Economy, 5(4): 491–507
  • 1994, Roger Koppl, Lachmann on Schütz and Shackle, Advances in Austrian Economics, 1, pp289–302
  • 1996,
    • Nicolai J. Foss, Spontaneous Social Order: Economics and Schützian Sociology, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 55, pp73–86
    • B. Pietrykowski, "Alfred Schütz and the Economists", History of Political Economy 28, pp219–244
    • Helmut Wagner, George Psathas, F. Kersten, dir., "Collected Papers IV", Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers
  • 1997, Roger Koppl, ‘Mises and Schutz on Ideal Types‛, Cultural Dynamics, 9(1), pp63-79
  • 2000,
    • Adolfo Mir Araújo, "El debate epistolar entre Schutz 4. y Parsons", Estudios Sociológicos, Vol. XVIII, n°54, pp539-545
    • Allen Oakley, "Alfred Schutz and Economics as a Social Science", Human Studies, 23 (3), pp243-260
  • 2004,
    • Michael D. Barber, "The Participating Citizen: A Biography of Alfred Schutz", Albany, NY: State University of New York Press
    • Michael D. Barber, "A Moment of Unconditional Validity? Schutz and the Habermas/Rorty Debate." Human Studies 27, 1, pp51-67
    • Marek Chojnacki, "Herbert Spiegelberg and Alfred Schutz: Some Affinities." Human Studies 27, 2, pp. 169-185
    • Lester Embree, "A Problem in Schutz's Theory of the Historical Sciences with an Illustration from the Women's Liberation Movement, Human Studies 27, 3, pp281-306
    • Patrick J. Gunning, 2004, The Principles of Subjectivism
    • Hideo Hama, "Kiki toshiteno Seikatusekai――Schutz no “discrepancy”gainen" [Life-World as a Crisis], Syakaigaku Kisoron Kenkyuu [The Annual Review of sociology and social theory], 3, pp46-62
    • Hironao Harie, "Schutz kagakuron no Nijyuusei e――Kagakutekikatudouron toshiteno “Kenshikiaru Shimin”" [Toward the Duality of Alfred Schutz's Theory of Science――Theory of Scientific Activity in “Well-informed Citizen”], Syakaigaku Kisoron Kenkyuu [The Annual Review of sociology and social theory], 3, pp148-165
    • Ken'ichi Kawano, "A.Schutz no Syakaigakuhouhouron no Kousou." [A. Schutz's Conception of Methodology of the Social Sciences], Wasedadaigaku Daigakuin Bungaku Kenkyuuka Kiyou [Bulletin of the Graduate Division of Literature of Waseda University], 49, pp125-137
    • Masato Kimura, "Ruikeika to Tankyu――Schutz niyoru Dewey Tankyuugainen no Hihantekijyuyou." [Typification and Inquiry: Schutz's critical Acceptance of Dewey's Concept of Inquiry], Shakaigaku Nenshi [The Annuals of Sociology], 45, pp99-115
    • Masato Kimura, "Seikatusekai to Jinkaku――Schutz niokeru Riron to Jitusen." [Lebenswelt und Persoenalichkeit: Schuetz's “Theorie und Praxis”], Soshiolojikal Peepaazu [Sociological Papers], 13, pp15-28
    • Christian Knudsen, "Alfred Schutz, Austrian Economists and the Knowledge Problem." Rationality and Society 16(1), pp45-89
    • Christopher Prendergast, Schutz’s Reflections on the Social Relationship between the Author and Beholder of Literary Works, Human Studies 27, 4, pp455-461
    • George Psathas, Alfred Schutz's Influence on American Sociologists and Sociology, Human Studies 27, 1, pp1-35
    • Shuichi Tamura, "Parsons ni okeru Kant syugi."[Parsons as Kanian: Focusing on the Correspondence of Alferd Schutz and Talcott Parsons], Shakaigaku Zasshi [Sociological Review of Kobe University], 21, pp140-55
  • 2005,
    • Michael D. Barber, "If Only To Be Heard: Value-Freedom and Ethics in Alfred Schutz's Economic and Political Writings, In: Explorations of the Life-World: Continuing Dialogues with Alfred Schutz, ENDRESS, Martin., PSATHAS, George., NASU, Hisashi., (eds). Springer, pp173-202
    • Martin Endress, Introduction: Alfred Schutz and Contemporary Social Theory and Social Research, In: Explorations of the Life-World: Continuing Dialogues with Alfred Schutz, Martin Endress, George PSATHAS, Hisashi NASU, dir., Springer, Book Series Contributions to Phenomenology, Vol 53, pp1-15
    • Lester Embree, "The Appeal of Alfred Schutz in Disciplines beyond Philosophy, e.g. Jurisprudence." in Explorations of the Life-World: Continuing Dialogues with Alfred Schutz, ENDRESS, Martin., PSATHAS, George., NASU, Hisashi., dir., Springer, pp77-96
    • Hongwoo Kim, In Search of a Political Sphere in Alfred Schutz, In: Explorations of the Life-World: Continuing Dialogues with Alfred Schutz, ENDRESS, Martin., PSATHAS, George., NASU, Hisashi., (eds). Springer, pp203-234
    • Masato KIMURA, "Schutz ha Dewey “Ronrigaku”wo dou yondaka." [How did Schutz read Dewey's “Logic”?], Wasedadaigaku Daigakuin Bungaku Kenkyuuka Kiyou [Bulletin of the Graduate Division of Literature of Waseda University], 50-1, pp91-100
    • George Psathas, The Ideal Type in Weber and Schutz, In: Explorations of the Life-World: Continuing Dialogues with Alfred Schutz, ENDRESS, Martin., PSATHAS, George., NASU, Hisashi., (eds). Springer, pp143-172
    • Yoshikazu Sato, Phenomenological Sociology in Japan: with special reference to Alfred Schutz, In: Development of Sociology in Japan, SRUBAR, lja., SHIMADA, Shingo., (eds.), Jahrbuch fur Soziologiegeschichte, VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften, pp.143-163
    • Steven Vaitkus, The “Naturality” of Alfred Schutz's Natural Attitude of the Life-World, In: Explorations of the Life-World: Continuing Dialogues with Alfred Schutz, ENDRESS, Martin., PSATHAS, George., NASU, Hisashi., (eds). Springer, pp97-122
    • Thomas P. Wilson, The Problem of Subjectivity in Schutz and Parsons, In: Explorations of the Life-World: Continuing Dialogues with Alfred Schutz, ENDRESS, Martin., PSATHAS, George., NASU, Hisashi., (eds). Springer, pp19-50
    • Keisuke Yatabe, "Shinmitusei to Tokumeisei: Schutz no Keisiki-teki-Gainen ga Sisasurukoto." [Intimacy and Thou-orientation: A few Implications of Schutz's “Formal Concept”], Soshiorojisuto [Journal of Musashi Sociological Society], 7, pp153-189
    • Chung-Chi Yu, Schutz on Transcendence and the Variety of Life-World Experience, In: Explorations of the Life-World: Continuing Dialogues with Alfred Schutz, ENDRESS, Martin., PSATHAS, George., NASU, Hisashi., (eds). Springer, pp267-280
  • 2008,
    • Daniela Griselda López, Alfred Schutz y la escuela austriaca de economía. Aportes al problema del orden social, Intersticios: Revista sociológica de pensamiento crítico, Vol 2, n°1, pp73-80
    • Daniela Griselda López, Conocimiento de sentido común y procesos de interpretación: Una mirada a partir de las reflexiones de Alfred Schutz y Harold Garfinkel, Intersticios: Revista sociológica de pensamiento crítico, Vol. 2, n°2, pp241-250
    • Daniela Griselda López, El problema de la subjetividad en la explicación sociológica: una mirada a partir del debate Schutz-Parsons, Revista de estudios sociales, n°31, pp72-83
    • Hisashi Nasu, A Continuing Dialogue with Alfred Schutz, Human Studies, Volume 31, n°2, juin, pp87-105
  • 2011, Bettina Bien Greaves, "Interview with Dr. Alfred Schutz, November 20, 1958 New York City", Schutzian Research, Vol 3, pp25-32
  • 2014, Michael Barber, "Alfred Schutz", In: Edward N. Zalta, dir., "The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy",

Liens externes

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