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Théorie LMX

De Wikiberal

La Théorie LMX (Leader-Member Exchange) porte son attention sur les relations entre les leaders et les subordonnés. Elle fut d'abord décrite dans les travaux de la théorie VDL chez F. G. Dansereau, George B. Graen, W. J. Haga (1975)[1], dans la théorie des rôles du leadership chez James Cashman et George B. Graen, (1975)[2] et chez George B. Graen (1976)[3]. Au lieu de regarder les traits d'un leader ou du contexte du leadership, la théorie LMX met l'accent sur ​​les aspects relationnels et réciproques du leadership. Cette approche soutient que les leaders et les suiveurs ont la capacité de s'influencer les uns les autres.

La relation entre les membres et le leader est le point focal de la théorie LMX

L'axe majeur de la théorie LMX postule qu'il existe différentes formes de relations entre les leaders et les suiveurs (ou les membres). La théorie LMX conceptualise le leadership comme un processus d'interactions entre les leaders et les suiveurs. Elle est ancrée dans la croyance qu'il existe des différences non seulement en nature mais aussi dans la qualité des relations entre les membres. Par rapport à d'autres théories du leadership qui mentionnent la notion relationnelle globale (leader-suiveurs), la théorie LMX met plus l'accent sur la réciprocité et sur l'individualité de la relation. Elle se concentre autour de la conceptualisation des niveaux de comportement du leader envers les subordonnés, et réciproquement.

Plus les employés perçoivent leur manager comme ressemblant à un profil réel de leur modèle implicite de leadership, plus il est approuvé. Meilleure est la qualité, aussi, de l'échange entre le leader et les membres. Cette congruence dyadique conduit à de meilleurs résultats tels que l'engagement des employés dans l'organisation, la satisfaction au travail, et une élévation du bien-être.

Dans des situations de congruence dyadique, les leaders et les suiveurs ont une haute qualité d'échange. Les échanges de faible qualité sont marqués par des relations contractuelles où le subordonné ne suit que pour recevoir des récompenses contrôlées par le leader, ne démontrant pas de réciprocité dans la relation. les échanges de haute qualité sont marquées par des niveaux plus élevés de confiance, de communication, de loyauté et de réciprocité entre le leader et le suiveur, entraînant des résultats positifs personnels et organisationnels. La congruence dyadique rend donc plus facile le renforcement d'une relation d'échange leader-membres. Mais, il est également possible que la relation d'échange renforce la théorie du leadership implicite.

La qualité du leader est d'apprendre les souhaits des suiveurs en matière de leadership. Les leaders souhaitent être considérés comme efficaces, donc ils prennent des repères de la part des suiveurs (perceptibles en raison du niveau élevé de communication qui marque la qualité des échanges entre le leader et les membres) et ils peuvent ainsi changer leurs comportements vis à vis des subordonnés, s'ils en ont la capacité et la volonté.

La congruence de la théorie des liens dyadiques et de la théorie LMX

La plupart des premières tentatives de recherche du leadership ont traité du comportement du leader comme d'une constante envers tous les subordonnés dans le groupe de travail, d'où la terminologie de "Style de Leadership Moyen". Le manager est censé offrir à tous les subordonnés la même relation managériale. A sa différence, l'approche dyadique du leadership se concentre sur les dyades (relation personnelle) leader-membre. Une dyade est la relation entre un leader et chaque subordonné de manière indépendante, plutôt que de considérer la relation entre le supérieur et le groupe dans son entier.

La première version des recherches sur le LMX fut dévoilée par la théorie de liens verticaux dyadiques (Dansereau et al., 1975). Ces recherches se sont focalisées sur la nature des liens verticaux que les leaders forment avec chacun de leurs suiveurs. La relation d'un leader envers une unité de travail, dans son ensemble, est considérée comme étant constituée d'une série de dyades verticales, c'est à dire par les relations de travail individuelles de chacun des subordonnés avec le leader. Ainsi, les échanges entre le leader et le suiveurs définissent leur relation dyadique.

Deux types de liens dyadiques apparaissent, les liens en groupe et les liens hors groupe. Dans le groupe, les relations sont basées sur un rôle élargi et négocié de responsabilités. Les relations hors du groupe sont fondées sur le contrat de travail formel. Les subordonnés font partie soit du groupe, soit sont en dehors du groupe en fonction de la qualité de leur relation avec le leader. En outre, ils sont en mesure de choisir eux-mêmes à quel groupe ils veulent appartenir en fonction de leur volonté d'élargir et de négocier leur rôle de responsabilités avec le leader. Ces subordonnés qui sont intéressés pour travailler avec le leader et de négocier avec lui de ce qu'il fera pour le groupe dans son ensemble peuvent faire partie du groupe. Ces négociations impliquent des activités qui vont au-delà du contrat de travail formel. Quand les subordonnés sont prêts à négocier leurs rôles et de faire plus pour le leader et l'organisation, alors le leader en fait aussi plus pour le subordonné, comme de faciliter la communication et de fournir un accès à des ressources précieuses. Les subordonnés qui ne s'intéressent pas à la négociation de leur rôle de responsabilités font partie du hors-groupe. Les subordonnés du groupe obtiennent plus d'informations, d'influences, de confiance et de considérations de la part de leurs leaders que ne l'obtiennent les membres hors du groupe. De même, les membres du groupe ont tendance à être plus fiables, plus impliqués, et plus communicatifs que les membres hors du groupe. Ces subordonnés du hors-groupe viennent travailler, font leur travail, et ensuite rentrent à la maison tout simplement.

D'autres recherches de la théorie LMX soutiennent que les leaders identifient deux groupes de subordonnés : ceux qui sont jugés dignes de confiance et ceux qui sont jugés moins fiables. Un leader établit des relations avec des membres appartenant à deux groupes différents, ceux qui sont à l'intérieur ("In-Group") et ceux qui sont à l'extérieur ("Out-group"). Le leader établit des relations de qualité avec le premier groupe (connu sous le nom «In-group» ou «LMX élevé") et s'engage dans des relations de qualité faible (connu comme le "hors-groupe» ou «LMX faible») avec le deuxième groupe. Alors que les relations de haute qualité sont basées sur la confiance et le respect mutuels, les relations de faible qualité sont dépendantes du contenu du contrat de travail formel. Dans ce type de relation, la distance entre le leader et le subordonné augmente.

Le premier niveau d'analyse repose sur la performance personnelle, du membre isolé ou intégré dans le groupe de travail, ou bien lié à une organisation dans ses divers sous-ensembles. Le deuxième niveau s'analyse en termes de résultats affectifs (satisfaction, stress) ou de comportements (engagement, citoyenneté organisationnelle = la loyauté, absentéisme, démission). La performance du groupe est étroitement corrélée avec la qualité du LMX, ce qui fait de la relation du travail un médiateur des résultats de la production du travail. Les membres qui font partie du groupe doté d'un fort LMX obtiennent de plus grandes responsabilités, de plus de récompenses, et de plus d'attention de la part de l'encadrement. Le leader permet à ces membres une certaine latitude dans leurs rôles.

La nature des relations est basée sur un processus perceptif, comportemental et cognitif sous-jacent

Les relations entre le leader et les membres (LMX) sont liées à quatre dimensions :

  • (1) La contribution perçue à l'échange (la contribution),
  • (2) Les expressions de soutien public (la fidélisation),
  • (3) L'affection mutuelle (affect).
  • (4) Le respect professionnel

Chacune de ces quatre dimensions est souvent soulignée par la corrélation de la satisfaction du subalterne avec le leader. Le modèle LMX permet de construire un autre modèle, celui de l'autonomisation (empowerment) des subordonnés et celui de la motivation.

Annexes

Notes et références

  1. Fred G. Dansereau, George B. Graen, William J. Haga, 1975, "A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13, pp46-78
  2. James Cashman, George B. Graen, "A role-making model of leadership in formal organizations: A developmental approach", In: J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson, dir., "Leadership frontiers", Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, pp143-166
  3. * 1976, George B. Graen, "Role-making processes within complex organizations", In: M. D. Dunnette, dir., "Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology", Chicago: Rand McNally, pp1202-1245

Publications

de 1971 à 1999

  • 1971, T. O. Jacobs, "Leadership and exchange in formal organizations", Londres, Alexandria/Human Resources Research Organization
  • 1975, C. N. Greene, "The Reciprocal Nature of Influence Between Leader and Subordinate", Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), pp187‐193
  • 1982,
    • George B. Graen, Michael A. Novak, P. Sommerkamp, "The effects of leader-member exchange and job design on productivity and satisfaction: Testing a dual attachment model", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol 30, pp109-131
    • K. I. Kim, D. W. Organ, "Determinants of leader-subordinate exchange relationships", Group & Organization Studies, Vol 7, pp77-89
  • 1984,
    • George B. Graen et T. A. Scandura, "Moderating Effects of Initial Leader-Member Exchange Status on the Effects of a Leadership Intervention", Journal of Applied Psychology, Washington, vol 69, n°3, pp428-
    • George B. Graen, Anson Seers, "The Dual Attachment Concept: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Combination of Task Characteristics and Leader-Member Exchange", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol 33, n°3, June, pp283-306
  • 1986,
    • Richard M. Dienesch et Robert C. Liden, "Leader-Member Exchange Model of Leadership: A Critique and Further Development", The Academy of Management Review, Vol 11, n°3, Jul., pp618-634
    • George B. Graen, Terri A. Scandura, Michael A. Novak, "When managers decide not to decide autocratically: An investigation of leader–member exchange and decision influence", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 71, pp579–584
  • 1988, Dirk D. Steiner, "Value Perceptions in Leader-Member Exchange", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 128, n°5, October, pp611-618
  • 1989,
    • T. A. Chandler, G. T. Fairhurst, "Social structure in leader-member exchange interaction", Communication Monograph, Vol 56, pp215-239
    • Robert C. Liden, T. R. Mitchell, "Ingratiation in the development of leader-member exchanges", In: R. A. Giacalone & P. Rosenfeld, dir., "Impression management in the organization", Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp343-361
  • 1990,
    • T. M. Dockery, D. D. Steiner, "The role of the initial interaction in leader-member exchange", Group and Organization Studies, Vol 15, pp395-413
    • Rosemary R. Lagace, "Leader-member exchange: Antecedents and consequences of the cadre and hired hand", Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, Vol 10, n°1, January, pp11-19
  • 1991,
    • R. J. Deluga, J. T. Perry, "The relationship of subordinate upward influencing behavior, satisfaction and perceived superior effectiveness with Leader-Member Exchanges", Journal of Occupational Psychology, Vol 64, pp239-252
    • Kathleen J. Krone, "Effects of leader-member exchange on subordinates’ upward influence attempts", Communication Research Reports, Vol 8, n°1, June, pp9-18
    • William E. Mcclane, "The Interaction of Leader and Member Characteristics in the Leader-Member Exchange (Lmx) Model of Leadership", Small Group Research, August, vol 22, n°3, pp283-300
    • William E. Mcclane, "Implications of member role differentiation: Analysis of a key concept in the LMX model of leadership", Group & Organization Studies, Vol 16, pp102-l13
  • 1993,
    • E. J. Conlon, P. Manogran, "A leader-member exchange approach to explaining organizational citizenship behavior", Proceedings of the annual meeting of the academy of management, Atlanta, GA, pp249-253
    • Gail T. Fairhurst, "The leader-member exchange patterns of women leaders in industry: A discourse analysis", Communication Monographs, Vol 60, n°4, December, pp321-351
    • Jur Furda, Jan Geersing, Rendel D. de Jong, Ivan H. Komproe, Pascale M. Le Blanc, "Leader Member Exchanges: Distinction Between Two Factors", European Work and Organizational Psychologist, Vol 3, n°4, October, pp297-309
    • Robert C. Liden, S. J. Wayne, D. Stilwell, "A longitudinal study on the early development of leader-member exchanges", Journal of Applied Psychology, Washington, vol 78, n°4, pp662-674
  • 1994,
    • A. G. Bedeian, A. S. Phillips, "Leader-follower exchange quality: The role of personal and interpersonal attributes", Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), pp990-1001
    • R. J. Deluga et J. T. Perry, "The role of subordinate performance and ingratiation in leader-member exchanges", Group and Organization Mangement, 19, pp67-86
    • T. A. Scandura et C. A. Schriesheim, "Leader-Member Exchange and Supervisor Career Mentoring as Complimentary Constructs in Leadership Research", Academy of Management Journal, 37(6), pp1588-1602
  • 1995,
    • Carl Borchgrevink, "Antecedents of Leader-Member Exchange", Hospitality & Tourism Educator, Vol 7, n°2, April, p69
    • George B. Graen et M. Uhl-Bien, “The Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of LMX theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level, multi-domain perspective", Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), pp219-247
  • 1996,
    • S. E. Anderson, S. G. Green, S. L. Shivers, "Demographic and organizational influences on leader-member exchange and related work attitudes", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol 66, n°2, pp203-214
    • T. N. Bauer et S. G. Green, “Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol 39, n°6, pp1538-1567
    • N. Bennett, R. C. Liden, R. P. Settoon, "Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and employee reciprocity", Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, pp219-227
  • 1997,
    • Neal M. Ashkanasy & Christine O'connor, "Value Congruence in Leader-Member Exchange", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 137, n°5, October, pp647-662
    • D. V. Day, C. R. Gerstner, "Meta‐Analytic review of leader‐member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues", Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), pp827‐844
    • Robert C. Liden, L. M. Shore, S. J. Wayne, "Perceived organizational support and leader–member exchange: Organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors", Academy of Management Journal, Vol 40, pp82–111
    • Robert C. Liden et R. T. Sparrowe, "Process and Structure in Leader-member exchange", The Academy of Management Review, Vol 22, n°2, pp522-
    • Robert C. Liden, R. T. Sparrowe, S. J. Wayne, "Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future", Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 15, pp47–119
    • Dirk D. Steiner, "Attributions in Leader Member Exchanges: Implications for Practice", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 6, n°1, March, pp59-71
  • 1998,
    • Carl P. Borchgrevink & Franklin J. Boster, "Leader-Member Exchange and Interpersonal Relationships", Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, Vol 5, n°1, February, pp53-79
    • R. J. Deluga, "Leader-member exchange quality and effectiveness ratings: The role of subordinate-supervisor conscientiousness similarity", Group and Organization Management, 23, pp189–216
    • Robert C. Liden, J. M. Maslyn, "Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development", Journal of Management, Vol 24, pp43-72
  • 1999,
    • S. L. Castro, C. C. Cogliser, C. A. Schriesheim, "Leader-member exchange (LMX) research: A comprehensive review of theory, measurement, and data-analytic practices", Leadership Quarterly, Vol 10, pp63-113
    • O. Epitropaki, R. Martin, "The impact of relational demography on the quality of leader-member exchanges (LMX) and employees’ work attitudes and well being", Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, pp237-240
    • J. Z. Bums, F. L. Otte, "Implications of leader-member exchange theory and research for human resource development research", Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol 10, pp225-247
    • K. E. Hall-Merenda, J. M. Howell, "The ties that bind: The impact of leader member exchange, transformational and transactional leadership, and distance on predicting follower performance", Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, pp680-694
    • D. A. Hofmann et F. P. Morgeson, "Safety-related behaviour as a social exchange: The role of perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange", Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, pp286-296
    • Jaesub Lee, "Leader-member exchange, gender, and members’ communication expectations with leaders", Communication Quarterly, Vol 47, n°4, September, pp415-429

depuis 2000

  • 2000,
    • H. H. Brower, F. D. Schoorman, H. H. Tan, "A model of relational leadership: The integration of trust and leader‐member exchange", Leadership Quarterly, 11(2), pp227‐250
    • S. L. Castro, C. A. Schriesheim, F. J. Yammarino, "Investigating contingences: An examination of the impact of span of supervision and upward controllingness on leader – member exchange using traditional and multivariate within – and between – entities analysis", Journal of Applied Psychology, vol 85, n°5, pp659-
    • George B. Graen, T. Scandura, M. Uhl-Bien, "Implications of leader-member exchange (LMX) for strategic human resource management systems: Relationships as social capital for competitive advantage", In: G. Ferris, dir., "Research in personnel and human resource management", Vol 128, Greenwich, Ct: JAI., pp137-185
    • S. P. James, J. E. Teri, J. Townsend, "Employee retaliation: The neglected consequence of poor leader-member exchange relations", Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(4), pp457-463
  • 2001,
    • Carl P. Borchgrevink, Ronald F. Cichy, Reidar J. Mykletun, "Leader-Member Exchange", Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, Vol 8, n°1-2, April, pp63-92
    • J. M. Maslyn et M. Uhl-Bien, "Leader-member exchange and its dimensions: Effects of self-effort and other's effort on relationship quality", Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, pp697-708
  • 2002,
    • W. H. Bommer, L. M. Shore, L. E. Tetrick, S. J. Wayne, "The role of fair treatment and rewards in perceptions of organizational support and leader-member exchange", Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, pp590-598
    • W. Breukelen, D. Konst, et R. Vilst, "Effects of LMX and Differential Treatment on Work Unit Commitment", Psychological Reports, 91, pp220-230
    • D. Duchon, K. J. Dunegan, M. Uhl-Bien, "LMX and subordinate performance: The moderating effects of task characteristics", Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(2), pp275-285
    • B. Erdogan, M. L. Kraimer, R. C. Liden, "Person-organization fit and work attitudes: The moderating role of leader-member exchanges", Academy of Management Proceedings, F1-F6
    • W. P. Galle, S. Hartman, A. C. Yrle, "An Investigation of Relationships between Communication Style and Leader-member exchange", Journal of Communication Management, 6(3), pp257-
    • George B. Graen, "It's about LMXs stupid: Collect high quality data, follow it, trust LMXs and seek serendipity always", In: A. Bedeian, dir., "Management laureates: A collection of autobiographical essays", Greenwich, CT: JAI Pres, 6th ed., pp52-81
    • S. G. Green et K. M. Sherony, "Coworker Exchange: Relationship Between Coworkers, Leader-member exchange, and Work Attitudes", Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, pp542-548
    • Dennis Reynolds, "The Moderating Effect of Leader-Member Exchange in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Performance", Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, Vol 1, n°3, June, pp77-90
  • 2003,
    • M. Ronald Buckley, Ceasar Douglas, Gerald R. Ferris, Michael J. Gundlach, "Organizational and Social Influences on Leader-member Exchange Processes: Implications for the Management of Diversity", In: George B. Graen, dir., "Dealing with diversity", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 1, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • David V. Day, Nathan J. Hiller, "LMX and Teamwork: The Challenges and Opportunities of Diversity", In: George B. Graen, dir., "Dealing with diversity", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 1, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • Gail T. Fairhurst & Stephanie Rhea Hamlett, "The Narrative Basis of Leader-Member Exchange", In: George B. Graen, dir., "Dealing with diversity", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 1, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • Jiing-Lih Farh, Rick D. Hackett, Lynda J. Song, Laurent M. Lapierre, "LMX and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: Examining the Links within and Across Western and Chinese Samples", In: George B. Graen, dir., "Dealing with diversity", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 1, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • George B. Graen, "Role Making Onto the Starting Work Team Using LMX Leadership: Diversity as an Asset", In: George B. Graen, dir., "Dealing with diversity", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 1, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • George B. Graen, "Interpersonal workplace theory at the crossroads: LMX and Transformational Theory as Special Cases of Role Making in Work Organizations", In: George B. Graen, dir., "Dealing with diversity", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 1, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, pp145-182
    • Russell Hoye, "Who’s Leading, Who’s Following? Leader-member Exchange Theory and Voluntary Sport Boards", Annals of Leisure Research, Vol 6, n°2, January, pp103-113
    • Marie S. Mitchell, Diane M. Sullivan, Mary Uhl-Bien, "The new conduct of business: How LMX can help capitalize on cultural diversity", In: George B. Graen, dir., "Dealing with diversity, LMX leadership: The Series, Vol. I, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, pp183-218
  • 2004,
    • Carl P. Borchgrevink, "Leader-Member Exchange in a Total Service Industry: The Hospitality Business", In: George B. Graen, dir., "New frontiers of leadership", LMX leadership series, Vol 2, Greenwich: Information Age Publishing
    • Zinta S. Byrne, Rudolph J. Sanchez, "Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Justice: A New Approach", In: George B. Graen, dir., "New frontiers of leadership", LMX leadership series, Vol 2, Greenwich: Information Age Publishing
    • Z. X. Chen, H. Wang, K. S. Law, R. D. Hackett, D. Wang, "Leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' performance and organizational citizenship behavior", Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), pp420-432
    • B. Erdogan, M. L. Kraimer, R. C. Liden, "Work Value Congruence and Intrinsic Career Success: The Compensatory Roles of Leader-member exchange and Perceived Organizational Support", Personnel Psychology, 57, 2, pp305-
    • George B. Graen, dir., "New frontiers of leadership", LMX leadership series, Vol 2, Greenwich: Information Age Publishing
    • Seung-Eon Jeong, Sookyung Kim, John W. O'Neill, "The Relationship Among Leader-Member Exchange, Perceived Organizational Support, and Trust in Hotel Organizations", Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, Vol 3, n°1, September, pp59-70
    • Kevin G. Lamude, Joseph Scudder, Donna Simmons, Patricia Torres, "Organizational newcomers: Temporary and regular employees, same-sex and mixed-sex superior-subordinate dyads, supervisor influence techniques, subordinates communication satisfaction, and leader-member exchange", Communication Research Reports, Vol 21, n°1, January, pp60-67
    • Junping Liang, Da Yu, "A new model for examining the leader? – member exchange (LMX) theory", Human Resource Development International, Vol 7, n°2, June, pp251-264
    • Birgit Schyns, "LMX in Germany: Theoretical and Empirical Reception of a Dyadic Leadership Approach", In: George B. Graen, dir., "New frontiers of leadership", LMX leadership series, Vol 2, Greenwich: Information Age Publishing
  • 2005,
    • Rich Arvey, Satoris S. Youngcourt, Zhen Zhang, "The Determinants of the LMX Exchange: Genetic Influences?", In: George B. Graen & Joan A. Graen, dir., "Global organizing designs", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 3, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
    • Jennifer A. H. Becker, Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben, H. Dan O'Hair, "Defensive Communication and Burnout in the Workplace: The Mediating Role of Leader–Member Exchange", Communication Research Reports, Vol 22, n°2, June, pp143-150
    • Hartmut Blank, Gisela Mohr, Tina Paul, Birgit Schyns, "Comparing antecedents and consequences of leader-member exchange in a German working context to findings in the US", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, vol 14, n°1, pp1-22
    • Stephanie L. Castro, Wayne Hochwarter, "Social Influence from the Bottom Up: A Process Model of LMX Development", In: George B. Graen & Joan A. Graen, dir., "Global organizing designs", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 3, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
    • Z. X. Chen, H. Wang, K. S. Law, R. D. Hackett, D. X. Wang, "Leader member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance and organizational citizenship behavior", Academy of Management Journal, Vol 48, pp420-432
    • Dan S. Chiaburu, "The Effects of Instrumentality on the Relationship Between Goal Orientation and Leader-Member Exchange", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 145, n°3, June, pp365-367
    • O. Epitropaki et R. Martin, "From Ideal to Real: A Longitudinal Study of the Role of Implicit Leadership Theories on Leader-Member Exchanges and Employee Outcomes", Journal of Applied Psychology, Washington, Vol 90, n°4, pp659-
    • R. Thomas George & Murat Hancer, "Leader-Member Exchange Quality", Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, Vol 3, n°2, January, pp85-99
    • Venkat R. Krishnan, "Leader-Member Exchange, Transformational Leadership, and Value System", EJBO Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, Vol 10, n°1, pp14-21
    • Jaesub Lee, "Communication as Antecedents and Consequences of LMX Development Globally: A New Strong Inference Approach", In: George B. Graen & Joan A. Graen, dir., "Global organizing designs", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 3, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
    • Robert C. Liden, Raymond T. Sparrowe, "Two routes to influence: Integrating leader-member exchange and social network perspective", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol 50, n°4, pp505-535
    • John Maslyn, Mary Uhl-Bien, , "LMX Differentiation: Key concepts and related empirical findings", In: George B. Graen & Joan A. Graen, dir., "Global organizing designs", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 3, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
  • 2006,
    • S. Aryee, Z. Chen, "Leader-member exchange in a Chinese context: Antecedents, the mediating role of psychological empowerment and outcomes", Journal of Business Research, Vol 59, pp793-801
    • T. N. Bauer, B. Erdogan, Robert C. Liden, S. J. Wayne, "A longitudinal study of the moderating role of extraversion: Leader–member exchange, performance, and turnover during new executive development", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 91, pp298–310
    • Kristin Behfar, Carl P. Borchgrevink, Alex M. Susskind, "An Exploration of the Relationship Between Communication Network Structures Team-Member Exchange Quality and Teamwork", In: George B. Graen, Joni A. Graen, dir., "Sharing network leadership", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 4, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • K. Boies, J. Howell, "Leader-member exchange in teams: An examination of the interaction between relationship differentiation and mean LMX in explaining team-level outcomes", The Leadership Quarterly, Vol 17, pp246-257
    • Marcel A. Croon, Birgit Schyns, "A model of task demands, social structure, and leader–member exchange and their relationship to job satisfaction", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 17, n°4, April, pp602-615
    • Tanguy Dulac, David J. Henderson, Robert C. Liden, "The Role Of LMX and Communication in the Goal Setting Process", In: George B. Graen, Joni A. Graen, dir., "Sharing network leadership", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 4, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • B. Erdogan, R. C. Liden, S. J. Wayne, R. T. Sparrowe, "Leader-member exchange, differentiation, and task interdependence: Implications for individual and group performance", Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(6), pp723-
    • Bryan Fix & Patricia M. Sias, "Person-Centered Communication, Leader-Member Exchange, and Employee Job Satisfaction", Communication Research Reports, Vol 23, n°1, June, pp35-44
    • Deborah Gibbons, Steven L. Grover, "Network Factors in Leader-Member Exchange Relationships", In: George B. Graen, Joni A. Graen, dir., "Sharing network leadership", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 4, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • Devi R. Gnyawali, Ravindranath (Ravi) Madhavan, Evan Offstein, "Pushing the Frontier of LMX Research: The Contribution of Triads", In: George B. Graen, Joni A. Graen, dir., "Sharing network leadership", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 4, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • George B. Graen, C. Hui, E. A. Taylor, "Experience-based learning about LMX leadership and fairness in project teams: A dyadic directional approach", Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol 5, pp448–460
    • George B. Graen, "To Share or Not to Share Leadership: New LMX-MMX Network Leadership or Charismatic Leadership on Creative Projects", In: George B. Graen, Joni A. Graen, dir., "Sharing network leadership", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 4, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • Kenneth J. Harris & K. Michele Kacmar, "Too Much of a Good Thing: The Curvilinear Effect of Leader-Member Exchange on Stress", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 146, n°1, February, pp65-84
    • Michael W. Kramer, "Communication Strategies for Sharing Leadership Within a Creative Team: LMX in Theater Groups", In: George B. Graen, Joni A. Graen, dir., "Sharing network leadership", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 4, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • Michael W. Kramer, R. T. Sparrowe, B. W. Soetjipto, "Do leaders' influence tactics relate to members' helping behavior? It depends on the quality of the LMX relationship", Academy of Management Journal, 49(6), pp1194-1208
    • Brigitte Kroon, Birgit Schyns, Karin Sanders, "Leader-Member Exchange and Solidarity Behavior: A Study of Reciprocity and Performance", In: George B. Graen, Joni A. Graen, dir., "Sharing network leadership", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 4, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • David M. Mayer, Ronald F. Piccolo, "Expanding The Scope: Social Network and Multilevel Perspectives on Leader-Member Exchange", In: George B. Graen, Joni A. Graen, dir., "Sharing network leadership", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 4, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
    • Scott A. Myers, "Using Leader-Member Exchange Theory to Explain Students' Motives to Communicate", Communication Quarterly, Vol 54, n°3, August, pp293-304
    • Ekin K. Pellegrini, Terri A. Scandura, "Leader-Member Exchange (LMX), Paternalism, and Delegation in the Turkish Business Culture: An Empirical Investigation", Journal of International Business Studies, Vol 37, n°2, Mar., pp264-279
    • Melvin L. Smith, "Emotional Intelligence, Leader-Member Exchange and Individual Contributions to Organizational Social Capital", In: George B. Graen, Joni A. Graen, dir., "Sharing network leadership", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 4, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
  • 2007,
    • Mahfooz A. Ansari, Kanika T. Bhal, "Leader-member exchange-subordinate outcomes relationship: role of voice and justice", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol 28, n°1, pp20-35
    • Ziguang Chen, Wing Lam, "Making LMX leadership work in China", In: George B. Graen, Joan A. Graen, dir., "New multinational network sharing", Charlotte: Information Age Publishing
    • Ziguang Chen, Wing Lam, J. Zhong, "Leader-member exchange and member performance: A new look at individual-level negative feedback-seeking" behavior and team-level empowerment climate", Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), pp202-212
    • J. Enders, B. Erdogan, "Support from the top: Supervisors’ perceived organizational support as a moderator of leader-member exchange to satisfaction and performance relationships", Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), pp321-330
    • Jennifer M. Ferreter, Charles A. Scherbaum, Loren J. Naidoo, "Examining component measures of team leader–member exchange (LMX-SLX) using item response theory", In: George B. Graen & Joan A. Graen, dir., "New multinational network sharing", Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, pp129–156
    • Yitzhak Fried, Ariel S. Levi, Gregory Laurence, "The Job Characteristics Model and LMX-MMX Leadership", In: George B. Graen, Joan A. Graen, dir., "New multinational network sharing", Charlotte: Information Age Publishing
    • George B. Graen, "Integrating Graen’s LMX Leadership Theory and Hackman’s Job Characteristics Model",In: George B. Graen, Joan A. Graen, dir., "New multinational network sharing", Charlotte: Information Age Publishing
    • R. D. Hackett, L. M. Lapierre, "Trait conscientiousness, leader‐member exchange, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviour: A test of an integrative model", Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, pp539‐554
    • R. Ilies, J. D. Nahrgang, F. P. Morgeson, "Leader-member exchange and citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis", Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), pp269-277
    • Wing Lam, "Attribution Theory and LMX Theory", In: George B. Graen, Joan A. Graen, dir., "New multinational network sharing", Charlotte: Information Age Publishing
    • Kenneth S. Law, Xuefeng Liu, Hui Wang, "Leader-member Exchange in the People’s Republic of China: Preliminary Research on the Contents and Dimensions", In: George B. Graen, Joan A. Graen, dir., "New multinational network sharing", Charlotte: Information Age Publishing
  • 2008,
    • Mary Bardes, David M. Mayer, Timothy A. Judge, Ronald F. Piccolo, "Does high quality leader–member exchange accentuate the effects of organizational justice?", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 17, n°2, June, pp273-298
    • Jacob W. Breland, Darren C. Treadway, Laura A. Williams, Lei Wang, Jun Yang, "The Role of Politics and Political Behavior in the Development and Performance of LMX Relationships: A Multilevel Approach", In: George B. Graen, Joan A. Graen, dir., "Knowledge-driven corporation-complex creative destruction", Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing
    • W. H. Bommer, D. J. Henderson, S. J. Wayne, L. M. Shore, L. E. Tetrick, "Leader–member exchange, differentiation, and psychological contract fulfillment: A multilevel examination", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 93, pp1208–1219
    • J. P. Burton, C. J. Sablynski, T. Sekiguchi, "Linking justice, performance, and citizenship via leader-member exchange", Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol 23, pp51-61
    • Zhen Xiong Chen, Kenneth S. Law, Hui Wang, "Leader-member exchange, employee performance, and work outcomes: an empirical study in the Chinese context", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 19, n°10, October, pp1809-1824
    • H. C. Goh, C. Koh, K. Y. Ng, "The heart of the servant leader: Leader’s motivation-to serve and its impact on LMX and subordinates’ extra-role behavior", In: George B. Graen et Joan A. Graen, dir., "Knowledge-driven corporation-complex creative destruction", Charlotte, NC: Information Age, pp125-144
    • Harold A. Goldstein, Loren J. Naidoo, Charles A. Scherbaum, "Examining the relative importance of leader–member exchange on group performance over time", In: George B. Graen & Joan A. Graen, dir., "Knowledge driven corporation: Complex creative destruction", LMX leadership: The series, Vol 6, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, pp211−230
    • Vicente González-Romá, José María Peiró, Nuria Tordera, "The moderator effect of psychological climate on the relationship between leader – member exchange (LMX) quality and role overload", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 17, n°1, March, pp55-72
    • D. Hooper, R. Martin, "Beyond personal Leader--Member Exchange (LMX) quality: The effects of perceived LMX variability on employee reactions", The Leadership Quarterly, Vol 19, pp20-30
    • R. Ilies, F. P. Morgeson, J. D. Nahrgang, "The development of leader–member exchanges: Exploring how personality and performance influence leader and member relationships over time", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol 108, pp256–266
    • Ronit Kark, Dina Van-Dijk, "Birds of a Feather Flock Together: The Relationship between Leader–Follower Self-Regulation Congruency, LMX, and Outcomes", In: George B. Graen, Joan A. Graen, dir., "Knowledge-driven corporation-complex creative destruction", Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing
    • Jennifer L. Sparr & Sabine Sonnentag, "Fairness perceptions of supervisor feedback, LMX, and employee well-being at work", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 17, n°2, June, pp198-225
  • 2009,
    • Rachel Alden-Anderson, Satoris S. Culbertson, Ann H. Huffman, "Leader–Member Exchange and Work–Family Interactions: The Mediating Role of Self-Reported Challenge- and Hindrance-Related Stress", The Journal of Psychology, Vol 144, n°1, November, pp15-36
    • Talya N. Bauer, Berrin Erdogan, Leslie Hammer, Jeff Johnson, Donald M. Truxillo, "Perceptions of Overall Fairness: Are Effects on Job Performance Moderated by Leader-Member Exchange?", Human Performance, Vol 22, n°5, October, pp432-449
    • R. Ilies, F. P. Morgeson, J. D. Nahrgang, "The development of leader–member exchanges: Exploring how personality and performance influence leader and member relationships over time", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(2), pp256-266
    • Guylaine Landry, Christian Vandenberghe, "Role of Commitment to the Supervisor, Leader-Member Exchange, and Supervisor-Based Self-Esteem in Employee-Supervisor Conflicts", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 149, n°1, February, pp5-28
    • F. P. Morgeson, J. D. Nahrgang, H. P. Sin, "Understanding why they don’t see eye to eye: An examination of leader–member exchange (LMX) agreement", Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), pp1048
    • C. A. Schriesheim, X. T. Zhou, "Supervisor–subordinate convergence in descriptions of leader–member exchange (LMX) quality: Review and testable propositions", The Leadership Quarterly, 20(6), pp920-932

Depuis 2010

  • 2010,
    • Hassan Abu Bakar, Keith E. Dilbeck, James C. McCroskey, "Mediating Role of Supervisory Communication Practices on Relations Between Leader–Member Exchange and Perceived Employee Commitment to Workgroup", Communication Monographs, Vol 77, n°4, December, pp637-656
    • Simon C.H. Chan, Xu Huang, Wing Lam & Xinsheng Nan, "The joint effect of leader–member exchange and emotional intelligence on burnout and work performance in call centers in China", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 21, n°7, June, pp1124-1144
    • D. E. Conlon, H. P. Sin, K. S. Wilson, "What about the leader in leader-member exchange? The impact of resource exchanges and substitutability on the leader", Academy of Management Review, 35(3), pp358-372
    • David Day, Birgit Schyns, "Critique and review of leader–member exchange theory: Issues of agreement, consensus, and excellence", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 19, n°1, February, pp1-29
    • Suzanne van Gils , Niels van Quaquebeke, Daan van Knippenberg, "The X-factor: On the relevance of implicit leadership and followership theories for leader–member exchange agreement", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 19, n°3, June, pp333-363
    • M-C. Lo, T. Ramayah, M. Hii Wei, P. Songan, 2010, “The relationship between leadership styles and organizational commitment in Malaysia: role of leader-member exchange”, Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol 16, n°1/2, pp79-103
    • Kyungmi Kim, Hyung-Ryong Lee, Suzanne K. Murrmann, Kent F. Murrmann, "Organizational Justice as a Mediator of the Relationships Between Leader-Member Exchange and Employees' Turnover Intentions", Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, Vol 19, n°2, January, pp97-114
    • May-Chiun Lo, T. Ramayah, Hii Wei Min & Peter Songan, "The relationship between leadership styles and organizational commitment in Malaysia: role of leader–member exchange", Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol 16, n°1-2, January, pp79-103
    • S. E. Markham, W. D. Murry, M. E. Palanski, Francis J. Yammarino, "Leader–member exchange, shared values, and performance: Agreement and levels of analysis do matter", The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), pp469-480
    • John M. Maslyn, Birgit Schyns, Jürgen Weibler, "Understanding the relationship between span of control and subordinate consensus in leader–member exchange", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 19, n° 3, June, pp388-406
    • C. A. Schriesheim, X. T. Zhou, "Quantitative and qualitative examination of propositions concerning supervisor–subordinate convergence in descriptions of leader–member exchange (LMX) quality", The Leadership Quarterly, 21(5), pp826-843
  • 2011,
    • Yvonne Brunetto, Rod Farr-Wharton, Kate Shacklock, "Professionals' supervisor–subordinate relationships, autonomy and commitment in Australia: a leader–member exchange theory perspective", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 22, n°17, October, pp3496-3512
    • James B. DeConinck, "The Effects of Leader–Member Exchange and Organizational Identification on Performance and Turnover Among Salespeople", Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol 31, n°1, December, pp21-34
    • Harold W. Goldstein, George B. Graen, Loren J. Naidoo, Charles A. Scherbaum, "A Longitudinal Examination of the Effects of LMX, Ability, and Differentiation on Team Performance", J Bus Psychol, Vol 26, pp347–357
    • Subodh Kulkarni & Nagarajan Ramamoorthy, "Leader–member exchange, subordinate stewardship, and hierarchical governance", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 22, n°13, August, pp2770-2793
    • Süleyman M. Yildiz, "Relationship between leader–member exchange and burnout in professional footballers", Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol 29, n°14, November, pp1493-1502
  • 2012,
    • Timothy Bartram, Yvonne Brunetto, Gian Casimir, Rod Farr-Wharton, Kate Shacklock, Sandra G. Leggat, Pauline Stanton, "Comparing the impact of leader–member exchange, psychological empowerment and affective commitment upon Australian public and private sector nurses: implications for retention", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 23, n°11, June, pp2238-2255
    • Millissa F. Y. Cheung, Wei-ping Wu, "Leader-member exchange and employee work outcomes in Chinese firms: the mediating role of job satisfaction", Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol 18, n°1, January, pp65-81
    • Mark Anthony Farrell & Eddie Oczkowski, "Organisational identification and leader member exchange influences on customer orientation and organisational citizenship behaviours", Journal of Strategic Marketing, Vol 20, n°4, July, pp365-377
    • Dae-seok Kang, Jim Stewart, Hayeon Kim, Jung-chul Lim, "Unravelling the impact of psychological empowerment on customer service behaviours as a consequence of ‘Leader-Member Exchange’", The Service Industries Journal, Vol 32, n°11, August, pp1791-1809
    • Irene Hau Siu Chow, Wen Pan, Li-Yun Sun, "Leader-Member Exchange and Employee Creativity: Test of a Multilevel Moderated Mediation Model", Human Performance, Vol 25, n°5, November, pp432-451
  • 2013,
    • Colin R. Baker & Leah M. Omilion-Hodges, "The Effect of Leader-Member Exchange Differentiation Within Work Units on Coworker Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors", Communication Research Reports, Vol 30, n°4, October, pp313-322
    • George B. Graen, W. Schiemann, "Leadership-Motivated Excellence Theory: An Extension of LMX", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol 28, n°5, pp452-469
    • Shannon T. Carton, Rebecca M. Chory, Sean M. Horan, Erin Miller, Peter C. J. Raposo, "Testing Leader–Member Exchange Theory as a Lens to Understand Students’ Classroom Justice Perceptions and Antisocial Communication", Communication Quarterly, Vol 61, n°5, November, pp497-518
    • Randall G. Sleeth, "Psychological Contract, Leader–Member Exchange, and Perceived Organization Support—How Do They Interact?", Organization Management Journal, Vol 10, n°3, September, pp157-
    • Li Tsingan, Rui-Ping Zhang, Long-Ping Zhang, "Role Stressors and Job Attitudes: A Mediated Model of Leader-Member Exchange", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 153, n°5, September, pp560-576
  • 2014,
    • Nazli Ayse Ayyildiz Unnu & Julide Kesken, "Diagnosing the effects of leader-member exchange quality on performance in the context of organizational culture: a case from Turkish family-owned businesses", Journal of Business Economics and Management, Vol 15, n°1, January, pp174-195
    • Elio Borgonovi, Ben Farr-Wharton, Elisabetta Trinchero, "Leader–member exchange, affective commitment, engagement, wellbeing, and intention to leave: public versus private sector Italian nurses", Public Money & Management, Vol 34, n°6, November, pp381-388
    • R. J. Deluga, J. T. Perry, "The role of subordinate performance and ingratiation in leader-member exchanges", Group & Organization Management, 19(1), pp67-86
    • Yuhee Jung & Norihiko Takeuchi, "Relationships among leader–member exchange, person–organization fit and work attitudes in Japanese and Korean organizations: testing a cross-cultural moderating effect", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 25, n°1, January, pp23-46
    • Pavithra Kailasapathy, Maria L. Kraimer, Isabel Metz, "The interactive effects of leader–member exchange, gender and spouse's gender role orientation on work interference with family conflict", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 25, n°19, October, pp2681-2701
    • Baek-Kyoo (Brian) Joo, Gary N. McLean, Baiyin Yang, "Employee creativity: the effects of perceived learning culture, leader–member exchange quality, job autonomy, and proactivity", Human Resource Development International, Vol 17, n°3, May, pp297-317
  • 2015,
    • Subramaniam Ananthram, Stephen T. T. Teo, Cecil A. Pearson, Mabel Yeo, "Leader–Member Exchange and Relational Quality in a Singapore Public Sector Organization", Public Management Review, Vol 17, n°10, November, pp1379-1402
    • Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Maria Karanika-Murray, Glenn A. Williams & Tom Cox, "Leader-Member Exchange across two hierarchical levels of leadership: concurrent influences on work characteristics and employee psychological health", Work & Stress, Vol 29, n°1, January, pp57-74
    • Robert Buch, "Leader–member exchange as a moderator of the relationship between employee–organization exchange and affective commitment", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 26, n°1, January, pp59-79
    • Gokhan Caliskan, "An Examination of Coach and Player Relationships According to the Adapted LMX 7 Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study", Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, Vol 19, n°1, January, pp22-33
    • Onne Janssen, Niels A. van der Kam, Gerben S. van der Vegt, Janka I. Stoker, "Heroic or hubristic? A componential approach to the relationship between perceived transformational leadership and leader–member exchanges", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 24, n°4, July, pp611-626
    • Yunlin Lu, Yimo Shen & Lei Zhao, "Linking Psychological Contract Breach and Employee Outcomes in China: Does Leader-Member Exchange Make a Difference?", The Chinese Economy, Vol 48, n°4, July, pp297-308
  • 2016,
    • Theresa P. Atkinson, Rachel T. Hill, Russell A. Matthews, Valerie J. Morganson, "LMX, Breach Perceptions, Work-Family Conflict, and Well-Being: A Mediational Model", The Journal of Psychology, Vol 150, n°1, January, pp132-149
    • Youngkeun Choi, Jeong Yeon Kim, Taejong Yoo, "A study on the effect of learning organisation readiness on employees' quality commitment: the moderating effect of leader–member exchange", Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol 27, n°3-4, March, pp325-338
    • Yannick Griep, Tim Vantilborgh, Elfi Baillien & Roland Pepermans, "The mitigating role of leader-member exchange when perceiving psychological contract violation: a diary survey study among volunteers", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 25, n°2, March, pp254-271
    • Kristina K. Lindsey Hall, Thomas L. Baker, Martha C. Andrews, Tammy G. Hunt & Adam A. Rapp, "The Importance of Product/Service Quality for Frontline Marketing Employee Outcomes: The Moderating Effect of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)", Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol 24, n°1, January, pp23-41

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