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Leadership féminin

De Wikiberal

En raison de doutes sur la capacité de leadership des femmes, celles-ci sont généralement tenues à l'écart d'un niveau élevé de pouvoir par rapport aux hommes. L'expression généralement utilisée est celle du plafond de verre. Les femmes doivent souvent et injustement faire face au défi de prouver leur capacité et leurs performances en leadership en comparaison de leurs homologues masculins. Elles doivent assumer le dilemme de ce rôle de leader féminin en se comportant d'une façon extrêmement compétente tandis que dans le même temps, elles doivent rassurer les suiveurs qu'elles sont conformes aux attentes concernant un comportement approprié des femmes. L'exigence de ce double standard pour afficher une compétence supplémentaire est particulièrement difficile pour les femmes afin de faire reconnaître leur capacité élevée et leurs réalisations exceptionnelles. Elles doivent lutter contre les stéréotypes[1] sans tomber elles-mêmes dans le holisme catégoriel de leur inclination préférentielle pour certains rôles de leadership en raison de leur différence de genre sexuel. Comme aujourd'hui, les styles de leadership évoluent et se diversifient, une grande proportion d'entre eux fournissent des environnements qui accueillent favorablement les compétences de femmes leaders. Cependant les aspects idéologiques et culturels, soutenus par les stéréotypes, sont plus lents à changer que les modifications réelles des rôles de leadership qui s'opèrent dans la structure sociale.

Le syndrome d'appendice du leadership

Antonia Frasier[2] note les exemples de leadership féminin dans l'histoire de l'humanité qui souffrent du syndrome d'appendice (Appendage Syndrome of leadership), c'est-à-dire que ces femmes sont venues au pouvoir par leurs liens familiaux (mariage, femme, enfant, cousine, nièce) en s'associant avec un leader mâle (Cléopâtre, Catherine de Médicis, Catherine de Russie, etc.). Il faudra attendre le milieu du XXème siècle pour observer des femmes qui atteignent le pouvoir et exercent leur leadership politique sans ce syndrome d'appendice (Sirimavo Bandaranaike à Ceylan, maintenant Sri Lanka, en 1960, Indira Gandhi en Inde en 1966, Golda Meir en Israel, Margaret Thatcher au Royaume Uni). Antonia Frasier montre aussi que ces femmes leaders consolident leur position de pouvoir en montrant à leurs subordonnés qu'elles sont aussi capables, sinon plus, que les hommes d'exercer le pouvoir, en adoptant des comportements singeant ceux des mâles leaders autoritaires, soit en s'équipant d'attributs et accessoires vestimentaires (le sac à main remplaçant l'armure des chevaliers d'antan), soit en exécutant des actes aussi barbares que les pires atrocités commises par les tyrans et en adoptant des attitudes de séduction et de relations sexuelles efficaces pour leur maintien au pouvoir (Lucrèce Borgia à Rome, Cléopâtre en Égypte).

Prise en compte du genre sexuel dans l'analyse du leadership

Rosabeth Kanter[3] fut une des premières chercheuses a lancer le débat sur ​​les "angles morts" de l'analyse organisationnelle, c'est-à-dire les aspects de la vie organisationnelle qui cachent les attributs sexués du leadership et du pouvoir. Ces dernières années ont vu apparaître un certain nombre de recherches mettant en exergue le style de leadership en fonction du genre sexuel pouvant jouer sur la motivation[4]. Il est indéniable que la relation entre hommes et femmes fait ressortir un registre de comportements[5] et d'émotions qui dépasse le cadre d'une simple différence du genre sexuel. L'attirance probable qui peut s'exercer entre ces deux genres laisse à penser que ce facteur est important dans l'étude du leadership et de son émergence[6]. Ces éléments différentiels sont aussi entretenus par des rappels de contenus culturels[7]. Certaines études présentent que les différences de styles de communication en fonction du sexe contribuent à une plus ou moins bonne efficacité de leadership[8]. Certains chercheurs[9] ont suggéré que les femmes possèdent un avantage sur les hommes dans le milieu du travail en raison de leur plus grande promptitude à adopter un leadership collaboratif et un leadership de renforcement d'autonomie. Le leadership féministe s'est aussi préoccupé de la composition des groupes de travail en fonction de leur taille et de la répartition entre hommes et femmes ayant un effet sur le leadership[10].

Les théoriciens du style de leadership en fonction du genre sexuel affirment qu'il existe des différences profondes entre les dirigeants masculins et féminins. Les leaders femmes sont présentées comme des leaders se concentrant davantage sur les relations entre les personnes alors que les hommes leaders tendent à se concentrer sur les problèmes ou sur les tâches. Les femmes utilisent plus leur pouvoir personnel c'est-à-dire un pouvoir basé sur le charisme et les contacts personnels. Les hommes leaders ont tendance à utiliser le pouvoir structurel, c'est-à-dire un pouvoir fondé sur la hiérarchie organisationnelle et sur leur position hiérarchique.

Contestation d'un leadership de genre sexuel

Par contre, d'autres études[11] se sont réellement demandées si la différence du genre sexuel était un facteur important pour comprendre le style de leadership. La définition de ce qui est masculin et ce qui est considéré comme féminin varie dans l'espace et dans le temps. L'attribution de la masculinité de leadership et de la féminité de leadership se fonde davantage sur la construction de modèles mentaux des observateurs que sur une définition réelle de la vraie nature du leadership observé. R. P. Vecchio conteste[12] cette différence d'analyse des genres sexuels du leadership. Toute cette discussion suggère que le leadership doit être efficace et qu'il est régi par un "one best way".

Les dichotomies leadership masculin et féminin (à savoir la considération, l'attention aux processus et l'attachement aux personnes équivalent au leadership féminin tandis que la structure et les tâches seraient prioritairement l'objet du leadership masculin) rendent le concept du leadership beaucoup trop simpliste. Les hommes et les femmes sont capables d'agir avec autant d'assurance et autant de sympathie envers leurs concitoyens. Cependant, en raison du contexte de la culture exigeant un rôle stéréotypé du leadership en fonction du genre sexuel, les femmes accroissent leur influence en "féminisant" leur comportement, en affichant une chaleur sociale ou une coopération accrue ; tandis que les hommes ne perdent pas de leur influence lorsqu'ils ne présentent pas ces comportements de communion ; aussi les leaders masculins peuvent profiter d'un accès plus facile à un large éventail de comportements de leader qui sont adaptés pour répondre aux exigences de la situation. L'étude menée par S. H. Appelbaum, L. Audet, J. C. Miller (2003) va dans ce sens. Même si les femmes ne sont pas promues aussi fréquemment que les hommes, leurs caractéristiques féminines le sont. Dans la concurrence pour les promotions dans l'entreprise, une femme devrait agir comme un "homme" et affaiblir ses traits de "femme faible". Cependant, dans un environnement de catégorisation du leadership biaisé, les hommes sont ceux qui finissent finalement par obtenir la promotion, tout en adoptant une approche "féminine" du leadership.

Lorsque l'atmosphère de l'entreprise ne favorise pas leurs aspirations de carrière, dans la poursuite de nouveaux défis, ces femmes se lancent dans l'entrepreneuriat, que cette perspective soit préalablement mûrie ou imprévue. Cela fournit une explication de l'augmentation croissante des femmes entrepreneurs dans notre société, qui réussissent très bien leur leadership à l'extérieur, et pour leur propre compte. Comme elles ont déjà acquis une expertise à partir de leur emploi précédent, au lieu de développer un leadership interne au sein de leurs entreprises, en tant qu'intrapreneurs, elles cultivent leur leadership en tant qu'entrepreneurs externes.

Annexes

Notes et références

  1. La recherche sur les stéréotypes révèle que les gens, tous sexes confondus, considèrent que les hommes ont plus un leadership "agentique" (assurance de soi, instrumentalité) que les femmes et que les femmes ont un leadership plus "communal" (chaleur, altruisme) que les hommes. En outre, ces mêmes personnes révèlent l'attribution du qualificatif de "bon leader" aux personnes qui ont les caractéristiques du leader agentique.
    • 1989, O. C. Brenner, J. Tomkiewicz, V. E. Schein, “The Relationship Between Sex Role Stereotypes and Requisite Management Characteristics Revisited", Academy of Management Journal, 32, pp662-669
    • 1993, K. Deaux, M. Kite, "Gender stereotypes", In: F. L. Denmark, M. A. Paludi, dir., "Psychology of women: A handbook of issues and theories", Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp107–139
  2. Antonia Frasier, 1990, "The Warrior Queens: The Legends and the Lives of the Women Who Have Led Their Nations in War", New York: Anchor
  3. * Rosabeth Moss Kanter, 1977, "Men and Women of the Corporation", Anchor Press, New York
      • Repris en 1984, In: F. Fischer & C. Sirianni, dir., "Critical studies in organization & bureaucracy", Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp174-195
  4. * Douglas F. Cellar, Keith Goudy, Daniel O'Brien, Stuart Sidle, 2001, "Effects of Leader Style, Leader Sex, and Subordinate Personality on Leader Evaluations and Future Subordinate Motivation", Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol 16, n°1, Sep., pp61-72
  5. * 1979, Harry A. King, E. Keith Milner, Edward L. Pizzini, "Relationship between Sex and Leadership Behavior of Department Heads in Physical Education", Research in Higher Education, Vol 10, n°2, pp113-121
    • Russell L. Kent, Sherry E. Moss, 1994, "Effects of Sex and Gender Role on Leader Emergence", The Academy of Management Journal, Vol 37, n°5, Oct., pp1335-1346
    • Janice H. Harris, 1977, "Sexual Antagonism in D. H. Lawrence's Early Leadership Fiction", Modern Language Studies, Vol 7, n°1, Spring, pp43-52
  6. * Holly O'Donnell, 1985, "Leadership Effectiveness: Do Sex and Communication Style Make a Difference?", The English Journal, Vol 74, n°3, Mar., pp65-67
  7. 2003, L. L. Carli, A. H. Eagly, "The female leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence", Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 807-834
    • Arlene Eskilson, Mary Glenn Wiley, 1976, "Sex Composition and Leadership in Small Groups", Sociometry, Vol 39, n°3, Sep., pp183-194
    • Stuart J. Hysom, Cathryn Johnson, 2006, "Leadership Structures in Same-Sex Task Groups", Sociological Perspectives, Vol 49, n°3, Fall, pp391-410
  8. * Gregory H. Dobbins, Stephanie J. Platz, 1986, "Sex Differences in Leadership: How Real Are They?", The Academy of Management Review, Vol 11, n°1, Jan., pp118-127
  9. R. P. Vecchio, 2002, "Leadership and gender advantage", The Leadership Quarterly, 13(6), pp643-671

Publications

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  • 1974,
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  • 1975,
    • Kathryn M. Bartol, M. S. Wortman Jr., "Male versus female leaders: effects on perceived leader behavior and satisfaction in a hospital", Personnel Psychology, 28, pp533-547
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  • 1979,
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  • 1981,
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  • 1984, J. Adams, R. W. Rice, D. Instone, "Follower attitudes toward women and judgments concerning performance by female and male leaders", Academy of Management Journal, 27(3), pp636-643
  • 1986,
    • G. H. Dobbins, S. J. Platz, "Sex differences in leadership: How real are they?", Academy of Management Review, 11, pp118–127
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  • 1987, Susan Kwilecki, "Contemporary Pentecostal Clergywomen: Female Christian Leadership, Old Style", Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, Vol 3, n°2, Fall, pp57-75
  • 1988, Myrna Courage, Karolyn Godbey, Sandra Seymour, Richard Tate, Patricia Yancey Martin, "Work-Family Policies: Corporate, Union, Feminist, and Pro-Family Leaders' Views", Gender and Society, Vol 2, n°3, Special Issue to Honor Jessie Bernard, Sep., pp385-400
  • 1989, Estela Mara Bensimon, "A Feminist Reinterpretation of Presidents' Definitions of Leadership", Peabody Journal of Education (Educational Leadership and the Struggle for Mind), Vol 66, n°3, Spring, pp143-156
  • 1990,
    • D. Bourantas, N. Papalexandris, “Sex Differences in Leadership”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 5(5), pp7-10
    • D. Butler, F. L. Geis, "Nonverbal affect responses to male and female leaders: Implications for leadership evaluations", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, pp48–59
    • A. H. Eagly, B. T. Johnson, "Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis", Psychological Bulletin, 108, pp233–256
    • J. Rosener, "Ways Women Lead", Harvard Business Review, November-December, pp119-125
  • 1991, Linda K. Richter, "Exploring Theories of Female Leadership in South and Southeast Asia", Pacific Affairs, Vol 63, n°4, Winter, pp524-540
  • 1992, Jean Lipman-Blumen, "Connective Leadership: Female Leadership Styles in the 21st-Century Workplace", Sociological Perspectives, Vol 35, n°1, Women in the Workplace: Toward True Integration, Spring, pp183-203
  • 1993,
    • S. Adler, J. Laney, M. Packer, dir., "Managing Women", London, Open University Press
    • E. Apfelbaum, “Norwegian and French Women in High Leadership Positions”, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, pp409-429
    • Steven H. Applebaum, Barbara T. Shapiro, “Why Can’t Men Lead Like Women?”, Leadership and Organization Journal, 14(7), pp28-34
  • 1993,
    • Gail T. Fairhurst, "The leader-member exchange patterns of women leaders in industry: A discourse analysis", Communication Monographs, Vol 60, n°4, December, pp321-351
    • Malcolm Jewell, Marcia Lynn Whicker, "The Feminization of Leadership in State Legislatures", Political Science and Politics, Vol 26, n°4, Dec., pp705-712
  • 1994, N. J. Adler, “Women Managers in a Global Economy”, Training & Development, April, pp31-35
  • 1995,
    • B. Alimo-Metcalf, "An investigation of female and male constructs of leadership and empowerment", Women in Management Review, Vol 10, n°2, pp3–8
    • A. H. Eagly, S. J. Karau, M. G. Makhijani, "Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: A meta-analysis", Psychological Bulletin, 117, pp125–145
  • 1996,
    • E. Baldry, "Women’s Leadership in the Consumer Movement", International Review of Women and Leadership, 2(1), pp74-85
    • E. Cox, "Leading Women: Tactics for Making the Difference", Milsons Point, NSW, Random House Australia
    • W. J. Harrod, S. G. Sapp, L. Zhao, "Leadership Emergence in Task Groups with Egalitarian Gender-role Expectations", Sex Roles, 34, pp65-80
  • 1997,
    • N. J. Adler, "Global leadership: Women leaders", Management International Review, Vol 37, pp171-196
    • C. Oseen, "Luce Irigaray, Sexual Difference and Theorizing Leaders and Leadership", Gender, Work and Organization, 4 (3), pp170-184
  • 1999,
    • Kari J. Kværner, Olaf G. Aasland, Grete S. Botten, "Female Medical Leadership: Cross Sectional Study", British Medical Journal, Vol 318, n°7176, Jan. 9, pp91-94
    • N. J. Adler, "Global leaders: Women of influence", In: G. N. Powell, dir., "Handbook of gender & work", Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp239–261
    • J. Blackmore, "Troubling women: feminism, leadership and educational change", Buckingham: Open University Press
    • M. Gardiner, M. Tiggemann, "Gender Differences in Leadership Style, Job Stress and Mental Health in Male and Female dominated Industries", Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, pp301-315
    • Sondra Wieland Howe, "Leadership in MENC: The Female Tradition", Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, n°141, The 17th International Society for Music Education: ISME Research Seminar, Summer, pp59-65
  • 2000,
    • E. W. Book, "Why the best man for the job is a woman: The unique female qualities of leadership", New York: Harper Business
    • David Kelleher, Aruna Rao, "Leadership for Social Transformation: Some Ideas and Questions on Institutions and Feminist Leadership", Gender and Development, Vol 8, n°3, Nov., pp74-79
    • Kristi M. Lewis, "When Leaders Display Emotion: How Followers Respond to Negative Emotional Expression of Male and Female Leaders", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol 21, n°2, Special Issue: Emotions in Organization, Mar., pp221-234
  • 2001,
    • S. Burke, K. Collins, "Gender differences in leadership styles and management skills", Women in Management Review, Vol 15, n°5, pp244-256
    • Sharon Anne Cook, "A Case Study of an Equity Program in Teacher Education: Rethinking Feminist Leadership", Canadian Journal of Education / Revue canadienne de l'éducation, Vol 26, n°4, pp419-435
    • S. Alease Ferguson, Toni C. King, "Charting Ourselves: Leadership Development with Black Professional Women", NWSA Journal, Vol 13, n°2, Summer, pp123-141
  • 2002,
    • A. H. Eagly, S. J. Karau, "Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders", Psychological Review, 109, pp573–598
    • Val Singh, Susan Vinnicombe, "Women-only management training: An essential part of women's leadership development", Journal of Change Management, Vol 3, n°4, December, pp294-306
    • Mark R. Thompson, "Female Leadership of Democratic Transitions in Asia", Pacific Affairs, Vol 75, n°4, Winter, pp535-555
    • Frances Thurber, Enid Zimmerman, "An Evolving Feminist Leadership Model for Art Education", Studies in Art Education, Vol 44, n°1, Autumn, pp5-27
  • 2003,
    • S. H. Appelbaum, L. Audet, J. C. Miller, "Gender and leadership? Leadership and gender? A journey through the landscape of theories", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol 24, n°1, pp43-51
    • Mark R. Thompson, "Female Leadership of Democratic Transitions in Asia", Pacific Affairs, Vol 75, n°4, Winter, pp535-555
  • 2004, Thidziambi Phendla, "‘Metaphors of leadership, metaphors of hope …’: Life stories of black women leaders in South Africa", Africa Education Review, Vol 1, n°2, January, pp161-174
  • 2005,
    • Cheryl de la Rey, "Gender, women and leadership", Agenda, Vol 19, n°65, January, pp4-11
    • Lucy Eldersveld Murphy, "Native American Women's History: Tribes, Leadership, and Colonialism", Journal of Women's History, Vol 17, n°4, Winter, pp124-133
    • Carol Rusaw, "A Proposed Model of Feminist Public Sector Leadership", Administrative Theory & Praxis, Vol 27, n°2, Jun., pp385-393
  • 2006, Susan B. Hansen & Laura Wills Otero, "A Woman for U.S. President? Gender and Leadership Traits Before and After 9/11", Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, Vol 28, n°1, April, pp35-60
  • 2007,
    • S. Alexander Haslam, Clara Kulich, Michelle K. Ryan, "Where is the Romance for Women Leaders? The Effects of Gender on Leadership Attributions and Performance-Based Pay", Applied Psychology, Vol 56, n°4, pp582–601
    • Leonie B. Liveris, "Women, Leadership and the Orthodox Church in Australia: Always Second, Secondary or Seconded", Studies in World Christianity, Vol 13, n°1, pp13-32
    • Thelma Makoro, "The Political Emancipation of Women in South Africa and the Challenge to Leadership in the Churches, Studies in World Christianity, Vol 13, n°1, pp53-66
    • Lori R. Meeks, "In Her Likeness: Female Divinity and Leadership at Medieval Chuguji", Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Vol 34, n°2, pp351-392
  • 2008,
    • C. Elliott, V. Stead, "Learning from leading women's experience: towards a sociological understanding", Leadership, 4(2), pp159-180
    • Paula Kabalo, "Leadership Behind the Curtains: The Case of Israeli Women in 1948", Modern Judaism, Vol 28, n°1, February, pp14-40
  • 2009,
    • Stephanie Y. Mitchem, "Thinking about Feminist Leadership", Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, Vol 25, n°1, Spring (Special Issue: In Honor of Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza), pp197-201
    • Marlene G. Fine, "Women Leaders' Discursive Constructions of Leadership", Women's Studies in Communication, Vol 32, n°2, July, pp180-202
    • Stella M. Nkomo & Hellicy Ngambi, "African women in leadership: Current knowledge and a framework for future studies", International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity, Vol 4, n°1, July, pp49-68
    • Ciaran Sugrue, "From heroes and heroines to hermaphrodites: emasculation or emancipation of school leaders and leadership?", School Leadership & Management, Vol 29, n°4, September, pp353-371
    • Antoinette Tidjani Alou, "Niger and Sarraounia: One Hundred Years of Forgetting Female Leadership", Research in African Literatures, Vol 40, n°1, Oral Literature and Identity Formation in Africa and the Diaspora, Spring, pp42-56
  • 2010,
    • Sunny Daly, "Young Women as Activists in Contemporary Egypt: Anxiety, Leadership, and the Next Generation", Journal of Middle East Women's Studies, Vol 6, n°2, Spring, pp59-85
    • Peggy M. Delmas, commentaire du livre "On Becoming a Woman Leader: Learning from the Experiences of University Presidents", NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education, Vol 3, n°1, February, pp275-277
  • 2011,
    • Victoria Bellou, "Do women followers prefer a different leadership style than men?", The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol 22, n°13, August, pp2818-2833
    • Denise K. Lajimodiere, "Ogimah Ikwe: Native Women and Their Path to Leadership", Wicazo Sa Review, Vol 26, n°2, Fall, pp57-82
  • 2014, Jolyn Dahlvig & Karen A. Longman, "Contributors to Women's Leadership Development in Christian Higher Education: A Model and Emerging Theory", Journal of Research on Christian Education, Vol 23, n°1, January, pp5-28
  • 2016, Patricia S. Anderson, Karen A. Longman, "Women in Leadership: The Future of Christian Higher Education", Christian Higher Education, Vol 15, N°1-2, January, pp24-37




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Perspectives on women and leadership Nkululeko Malinga Honours degree Agenda Volume 19, Issue 65, January 2005, pages 104-108 Women and Leadership in Rural Areas Lisa Bourke & A. E. Luloff Women & Politics Volume 17, Issue 4, June 1997, pages 1-23 Challenges facing women leaders in Saudi Arabia Hanan Al-Ahmadi Human Resource Development International Volume 14, Issue 2, April 2011, pages 149-166 The gendered power relations of action learning: a critical analysis of women’s reflections on a leadership development programme Valerie Stead Human Resource Development International Volume 17, Issue 4, August 2014, pages 416-437 The Delicate Balancing Act: Challenges and Successes Facing College Student Women in Formal Leadership Roles Assistant Professor and Program Coordinator Paige Haber-Curran NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 6, Issue 1, February 2013, pages 71-98 THE LEADERSHIP INSTITUTE FOR A NEW CENTURY: LINCING WOMEN AND MINORITIES INTO TOMORROW'S COMMUNITY COLLEGE LEADERSHIP ROLES Larry H. Ebbers, Glenda Gallisath, Viana Rockel, M. Noreen Coyan Community College Journal of Research and Practice Volume 24, Issue 5, June 2000, pages 375-382 Navigating gender structure: women's leadership in a Brazilian participatory conservation project Catherine A. Meola Forests, Trees and Livelihoods Volume 22, Issue 2, June 2013, pages 106-123 Globalisation, higher education restructuring and women in leadership: opportunities or threats? Saajidha B Sader, Marie Odendaal & Ruth Searle Agenda Volume 19, Issue 65, January 2005, pages 58-74 Women “Take Care,” Men “Take Charge”: Managers' Stereotypic Perceptions of Women and Men Leaders Jeanine L. Prime, Nancy M. Carter & Theresa M. Welbourne The Psychologist-Manager Journal Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2009, pages 25-49 Women’s Leadership Development: A Study of Defining Moments Jolyn E. Dahlvig & Karen A. Longman Christian Higher Education Volume 9, Issue 3, May 2010, pages 238-258 Women deans: leadership becoming Carol A. Isaac, Linda S. Behar-Horenstein & Mirka Koro-Ljungberg International Journal of Leadership in Education Volume 12, Issue 2, April 2009, pages 135-153 South Korean women leaders’ struggles for a work and family balance Yonjoo Cho, Namhee Kim, Mimi Miyoung Lee, Jae Hoon Lim, Heeyoung Han & Hye Young Park Human Resource Development International Volume 18, Issue 5, October 2015, pages 521-537 The “Glass Ceiling” Persists: Women Leaders in Communication Companies Erika Falk & Erin Grizard Journal of Media Business Studies Volume 2, Issue 1, March 2005, pages 23-49 Encouraged or Discouraged? Women Teacher Leaders Becoming Principals Kathy L. Adams & W. Grant Hambright The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas Volume 77, Issue 5, May 2004, pages 209-212 Women and higher education leadership in Kenya: a critical analysis George Odhiambo Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management Volume 33, Issue 6, December 2011, pages 667-678 Faculty and Staff Members' Perceptions of Effective Leadership: Are There Differences Between Women and Men Leaders? Vicki J. Rosser Equity & Excellence in Education Volume 36, Issue 1, January 2003, pages 71-81 Feminising the Outdoors: Women and Adventure Recreation Leadership May Carter & Sue Colyer Annals of Leisure Research Volume 2, Issue 1, January 1999, pages 73-86 Mentoring Women Doctoral Students to Become Community Leaders Jana L. Price-Sharps, Amy L. Tillery, Lisa C. Giuliani, Elizabeth M. Poulsen, Rizza R. Bermio-Gonzalez, Stephanie Vucovich-Cholakian, Elaine M. Newborg & Jennifer L. Roy-Pogutter Women & Therapy Volume 37, Issue 1-2, April 2014, pages 83-93 Sex-Role Expectations and the Assumption of Leadership by College Women Sharon Golub & Eileen Maxwell Canty The Journal of Social Psychology Volume 116, Issue 1, February 1982, pages 83-90 Sport, women, and leadership: Results of a project on executives in German sports organizations Gertrud Pfister & Sabine Radtke European Journal of Sport Science Volume 9, Issue 4, July 2009, pages 229-243 Saudi Women Leaders: Challenges and Opportunities Mark C. Thompson Journal of Arabian Studies Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2015, pages 15-36 Women's Leadership Programs in South Africa Cheryl de la Rey, Gia Jankelowitz & Shahaaz Suffla Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2003, pages 49-64 Women's sport leadership styles as the result of interaction between feminine and masculine approaches Sue Brown & Richard L. Light Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education Volume 3, Issue 3, November 2012, pages 185-198 Sheep, Shadows and Silly Saints: Constructing Women in Agricultural Leadership Barbara Pini Rural Society Volume 13, Issue 2, January 2003, pages 193-207 Gendered Realities and Women's Leadership Development: Participant Voices from Faith-Based Higher Education Shawna L. Lafreniere & Karen A. Longman Christian Higher Education Volume 7, Issue 5, October 2008, pages 388-404 Performance-self-esteem and perceptions of leadership emergence: A comparative study of men and women Patricia Hayes Andrews Western Journal of Speech Communication Volume 48, Issue 1, April 1984, pages 1-13 Women in power: New leadership in the health industry Helen J. Muller PhD, MPH & Carolyn Cocotas MPA Health Care for Women International Volume 9, Issue 2, January 1988, pages 63-82 Re-presenting women and leadership: a methodological journey Jane Wilkinson & Jill Blackmore International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education Volume 21, Issue 2, March 2008, pages 123-136 Women's leadership of ‘much needed national work’ in wartime education Kay Whitehead Journal of Educational Administration and History pages 1-13 Women in Student Affairs: Past, Present, and Future Leaders Delores E. McNair, Krystal Miguel, Shauna T Sobers-Young, Molly Bechtel & Steve Jacobson NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 6, Issue 2, September 2013, pages 231-250 ‘Citadel of Women’: strengthening female leadership in rural Cambodia Thavy Chhoeun, Panha Sok & Clodagh Byrne Gender & Development Volume 16, Issue 3, November 2008, pages 535-547 Leadership in the Management Institutes: An Exploration of the Experiences of Women Directors Rajib Lochan Dhar Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology Volume 8, Issue 2, September 2008, pages 1-15 Fostering a Grassroots Women's Movement through Feminist Leadership on the Burma-India Border Ginger Norwood & Cheery Zahau Women & Therapy Volume 34, Issue 3, July 2011, pages 223-241 A Window Into the Culture of Leadership Within Higher Education Through the Leadership Definitions of Women Faculty: A Case Study of ELAM Women Faculty Alumnae Sharon A. McDade, Kirk A. Nooks, Phillip J. King, Lorraine Sloma-Williams, Yu-Chuan Chuang, Rosalyn C. Richman & Page S. Morahan NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 1, Issue 1, January 2008, pages 76-104 Grassroots women's leadership and ‘deepening democracy’: the Huairou Commission's Local to Local Dialogue replication Dahlia Goldenberg Gender & Development Volume 16, Issue 3, November 2008, pages 443-456 When the Sales Manager is a Woman: An Exploration into the Relationship Between Salespeople's Gender and their Responses to Leadership Styles Lucette B. Comer, Marvin A. Jolson, Alan J. Dubinsky & Francis J. Yammarino Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management Volume 15, Issue 4, January 1995, pages 17-32 Different Pathways to Leadership Development of College Women and Men Woo-jeong Shim Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice Volume 50, Issue 3, July 2013, pages 270-289 Understanding the importance of gender and leader identity formation in executive coaching for senior women Suzette Skinner Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice Volume 7, Issue 2, July 2014, pages 102-114 Gender in the neoliberalised global academy: the affective economy of women and leadership in South Asia Louise Morley & Barbara Crossouard British Journal of Sociology of Education Volume 37, Issue 1, January 2016, pages 149-168 Some issues in Comparing Women and Men as Leaders Edwin P. Hollander & Jan Yoder Basic and Applied Social Psychology Volume 1, Issue 3, September 1980, pages 267-280 Effective Leadership for Girls and Women in Outdoor Recreation Debra J. Jordan Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 63, Issue 2, February 1992, pages 61-64 Negotiating new meanings of ‘leader’ and envisioning culturally informed theories for developing African-American women in leadership roles: an interview with Patricia S. Parker Marilyn Byrd Human Resource Development International Volume 11, Issue 1, February 2008, pages 101-107 Student Leaders at Women's Postsecondary Institutions: A Global Perspective Kristen A Renn & Jesse H Lytle Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice Volume 47, Issue 2, April 2010, pages 215-232 Preparing Women for Baptist Church Leadership: Mentoring Impact on Beliefs and Practices of Female Ministers DESEREE NEWKIRK & BRUCE S. COOPER Journal of Research on Christian Education Volume 22, Issue 3, September 2013, pages 323-343 Bridging the Gap: 16 Years of Academic Leadership Development for Women Cynthia Wolf Johnson, Chena Flood, Charlynn Ross & Jennifer Wilder NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2010, pages 166-184 Leadership for women's health in Africa: the Parliamentarians for Women's Health Project Reshma Trasi & Luisa Orza Gender & Development Volume 16, Issue 3, November 2008, pages 495-508 Pageant Politics: Framing Gendered Images of Women in Leadership Yumna Laher Politikon Volume 41, Issue 1, January 2014, pages 103-120 Pathways to leadership: Issues for women chief executives Kathryn A. Riley & Judy White Public Money & Management Volume 14, Issue 3, July 1994, pages 39-43 Developing Future Women Leaders: The Importance of Mentoring and Role Modeling in the Girls’ School Context Nicole Archard Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning Volume 20, Issue 4, November 2012, pages 451-472 Women and Sport Leadership Karen P. Depauw, Barbara J. Bonace & Marcia R. Karwas Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 62, Issue 3, March 1991, pages 32-34 (In)Equality and action: the role of women's training initiatives in promoting women's leadership opportunities in Myanmar Elizabeth Maber Gender & Development Volume 22, Issue 1, January 2014, pages 141-156 Rearticulating the Leadership Experiences of African American Women in Midlevel Student Affairs Administration Hannah L Clayborne & Florence Hamrick NASPA Journal Volume 44, Issue 1, January 2007, pages 123-146 Women caregivers and leaders in the second phase of HIV/AIDS Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala Agenda Volume 19, Issue 65, January 2005, pages 33-39 A ‘women's revolution from above’? Female leadership, intersectionality, and public policy under the Merkel government Angelika Von Wahl German Politics Volume 20, Issue 3, September 2011, pages 392-409 Indigenous Australian women’s leadership: stayin’ strong against the post-colonial tide Nereda White International Journal of Leadership in Education Volume 13, Issue 1, January 2010, pages 7-25 Conceptualization of Calling: A Grounded Theory Exploration of CCCU Women Leaders Karen A. Longman, Jolyn Dahlvig, Richard J. Wikkerink, Debra Cunningham & Candy M. O’Connor Christian Higher Education Volume 10, Issue 3-4, July 2011, pages 254-275 The Lives and Careers of Women Leaders in Shanghai Gao Huirong Journal of Educational Administration and History Volume 38, Issue 1, April 2006, pages 41-57 Native American Women: Leadership Images Dorothy I. Miller Equity & Excellence in Education Volume 16, Issue 1, January 1978, pages 37-39 Women’s Leadership Development Program Myrna L. Bair NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2010, pages 270-271 “Our Leaders Are Just We Ourself”: Black Women College Student Leaders’ Experiences With Oppression and Sources of Nourishment on a Predominantly White College Campus Andrea D. Domingue Equity & Excellence in Education Volume 48, Issue 3, July 2015, pages 454-472 'Empowered leaders'? Perspectives on women heading households in Latin America and Southern Africa Kavita Datta & Cathy McIlwaine Gender & Development Volume 8, Issue 3, November 2000, pages 40-49 Collective action, organisation building, and leadership: Women workers in the garment sector in Bangladesh Petra Dannecker Gender & Development Volume 8, Issue 3, November 2000, pages 31-39 Generational Politics and Renewal of Leadership in the Moroccan Women's Movement Loubna H. Skalli International Feminist Journal of Politics Volume 13, Issue 3, September 2011, pages 329-348 Feminist Eventfulness, Boredom and the 1984 Canadian Leadership Debate on Women's Issues Samantha C. Thrift Feminist Media Studies Volume 12, Issue 3, September 2012, pages 406-421 Leadership as Related to the Bernreuter Personality Measures: V. Leadership Among Adult Women in Social Activities Helen M. Richardson & Nelson G. Hanawal The Journal of Social Psychology Volume 36, Issue 2, November 1952, pages 141-153 Grooming Women for Leadership Patricia Stringer Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning Volume 9, Issue 2, February 1977, pages 21-26 BELIEFS AND VALUES OF WOMEN IN COMMUNITY COLLEGE LEADERSHIP Michael T. Miller & John W. Creswell Community College Journal of Research and Practice Volume 22, Issue 3, January 1998, pages 229-237 Women and leadership in higher education Izhar Oplatka Gender and Education pages 1-3 WOMEN EDUCATORS: LEADERSHIP IN THE 1990s Dorys Crow Grover Community Junior College Research Quarterly of Research and Practice Volume 16, Issue 4, January 1992, pages 329-343 Gender, Interculturalism and Discourses on Women's Leadership in the Olympic Movement Yi Wen Chin, Ian Henry & Fan Hong The International Journal of the History of Sport Volume 26, Issue 3, March 2009, pages 442-463 Women and Leadership in Sport Anita L. Defrantz Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 59, Issue 3, March 1988, pages 46-48 Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Women's Collaborative Leadership Style as a Model for Theological Education MARY E. LOWE Journal of Research on Christian Education Volume 20, Issue 3, September 2011, pages 309-329 Barriers to women leaders in academia: tales from science and technology Liza Howe-Walsh & Sarah Turnbull Studies in Higher Education Volume 41, Issue 3, March 2016, pages 415-428 Leadership in Hospitality Education: Why Are There So Few Women? Deborah L. Freedman, William Samenfink & Karen Lieberman Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education Volume 14, Issue 1, January 2002, pages 41-45 Developing Leadership Skills in Women Students Virginia Britton & Patricia B. Elmore NASPA Journal Volume 16, Issue 3, January 1978, pages 10-14 Women in leadership: A letter from Stockholm Elizabeth Pond The Washington Quarterly Volume 19, Issue 4, December 1996, pages 59-68 Sitshokupi Sibanda: ‘Bible Woman’ or evangelist? Ways of Naming and Remembering Female Leadership in a Mission Church of Colonial Zimbabwe Wendy Urban-Mead Women's History Review Volume 17, Issue 4, September 2008, pages 653-670 Women in leadership: contextual dynamics and boundaries Christine Eriksen Gender, Place & Culture Volume 19, Issue 3, June 2012, pages 398-400 Advancing Women Faculty to Senior Leadership in U.S. Academic Health Centers: Fifteen Years of History in the Making Page S. Morahan, Katharine A. Gleason, Rosalyn C. Richman, Sharon Dannels & Sharon A. McDade NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2010, pages 140-165 2003 Keynote address: Communication, women, and leadership Judy C. Pearson Ph.D. & Judith S. Trent Ph.D. Communication Studies Volume 55, Issue 2, June 2004, pages 400-406 The influence of party leaders on women's representation in parliament, 1935–1975: the case of New Zealand Margaret Hayward Commonwealth & Comparative Politics Volume 52, Issue 2, April 2014, pages 254-270 Women City Leaders and Postmaterialist Values: Gender Differences in Economic Development Priorities James M. Vanderleeuw, Maria E. Sandovici & Christopher A. Jarmon Journal of Women, Politics & Policy Volume 32, Issue 3, July 2011, pages 211-236 Explaining the Under-Representation of Women in Leadership Positions of Sport Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Melanie L. Sartore & George B. Cunningham Quest Volume 59, Issue 2, May 2007, pages 244-265 The Role of Mentoring in the Success of Women Leaders of Color in Higher Education Natalie A. Tran Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning Volume 22, Issue 4, August 2014, pages 302-315 Competing Discourses for Older Women: Agency/Leadership vs. Disengagement/Retirement Hilary M. Lips & Sarah L. Hastings Women & Therapy Volume 35, Issue 3-4, July 2012, pages 145-164 Complexities of Vietnamese femininities: a resource for rethinking women's university leadership practices Van Hanh Thi Do & Marie Brennan Gender and Education Volume 27, Issue 3, April 2015, pages 273-287 (Re)membering and (Re)living: A Methodological Exploration of Postmodern and Constructivist Feminist Approaches to Interviewing Women Leaders in Higher Education Associate Professor Penny A. Pasque NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 6, Issue 1, February 2013, pages 99-126 Socializing Women and Minorities For Administrative Leadership Susan L. Fleischman The Review of Education Volume 9, Issue 1, January 1983, pages 25-29 Context and the gendered status of teachers: women’s empowerment through leadership of non-formal schooling in rural Bangladesh Jill Sperandio Gender and Education Volume 23, Issue 2, March 2011, pages 121-135 Women Technology Leaders: Gender Issues in Higher Education Information Technology Marilyn Drury NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 4, Issue 1, February 2011, pages 96-123 Women in Leadership Positions in South Africa: The Role of Values Amanda Gouws & Hennie Kotzé Politikon Volume 34, Issue 2, August 2007, pages 165-185 American Indian Women Leaders, Public Policy, and the Importance of Gender and Ethnic Identity Diane-Michele Prindeville & Teresa Braley Gomez Women & Politics Volume 20, Issue 2, July 1999, pages 17-32 Marriage and Aspiration to Professional Leadership of Women Student Teachers in Nigeria Donatus Ojiakudiniro Owuamanam The Journal of Psychology Volume 115, Issue 1, September 1983, pages 103-106 A Leader of Women Phyllis Chesler & Ellen Cole PhD Women & Therapy Volume 17, Issue 1-2, December 1995, pages 1-23 Types of women religious leaders Richard A. Hutch Religion Volume 14, Issue 2, April 1984, pages 155-173 Texas State Technical College System Women’s Leadership Institute Eliska Smith NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 5, Issue 2, September 2012, pages 209-210 Mentoring-for-Leadership Lunch Series for Women SEM Faculty Joyce Yen NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 1, Issue 1, January 2008, pages 234-235 Women in Administration a Quest for Quality Leadership Becky L. Sisley Journal of Physical Education and Recreation Volume 52, Issue 4, April 1981, pages 77-79 Engaging religious leaders: South African Muslim women’s experiences in matters pertaining to divorce initiatives Nina Hoel Social Dynamics Volume 38, Issue 2, June 2012, pages 184-200 Media Impact on Women in Sport and Sport Leadership Mimi Murray Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 62, Issue 3, March 1991, pages 45-47 FUTURE AGENDAS FOR WOMEN COMMUNITY COLLEGE LEADERS AND CHANGE AGENTS Sandra Todd Giannini Community College Journal of Research and Practice Volume 25, Issue 3, March 2001, pages 201-211 Young Women Leaders Program Edith Lawrence, Keonya Booker & Lauren Germain NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2009, pages 247-248 Women in Management and Leadership in the Olympic Movement in Muslim Majority Countries: An Empirical Evaluation of Huntington's Clash of Civilisations Typology Shushu Chen & Ian Henry The International Journal of the History of Sport Volume 29, Issue 15, October 2012, pages 2131-2144 Poverty and marginalisation: challenges to poor women's leadership in urban India Kaveri Haritas Gender & Development Volume 16, Issue 3, November 2008, pages 457-469 Locating young women in a plethora of issues: reflections from the tenth Young Women Leader's Conference 2010 Melanie Reyes & Anamaine Asinas Gender & Development Volume 19, Issue 3, November 2011, pages 423-439 Women/Men in Leadership Roles in Art Education John A. Michael Studies in Art Education Volume 18, Issue 2, January 1977, pages 7-20 Women and leadership in higher education in Australia Kate White Tertiary Education and Management Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2003, pages 45-60 Women in Leadership and Management Florence Guido-DiBrito, D. Stanley Carpenter & William F. DiBrito NASPA Journal Volume 23, Issue 3, January 1986, pages 22-31 Dilemmas in leadership: women of colour in the Academy Philomena Essed Ethnic and Racial Studies Volume 23, Issue 5, January 2000, pages 888-904 WOMEN AS COMMUNITY COLLEGE LEADERS Gwendolyn W. Stephenson Community College Journal of Research and Practice Volume 25, Issue 3, March 2001, pages 193-200 The Question of 'the Italians' and Women's Representation in Leadership in the Australian Sugar Industry BARBARA PINI Australian Geographer Volume 34, Issue 2, July 2003, pages 211-222 Muslim women in postcolonial Kenya: leadership, representation, and social change Caroline Ackley Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue canadienne des études africaines Volume 49, Issue 3, September 2015, pages 511-514 Women Legislative Caucus and Leadership Campaign Committees Anthony Gierzynski & Paulette Budreck Women & Politics Volume 15, Issue 2, June 1995, pages 23-36 BEYOND BAIS YA'AKOV: ORTHODOX OUTREACH AND THE EMERGENCE OF HAREDI WOMEN AS RELIGIOUS LEADERS Adam S. Ferziger Journal of Modern Jewish Studies Volume 14, Issue 1, January 2015, pages 140-159 Review of Women in Academic Leadership: Professional Strategies, Personal Choices Tamara Yakaboski & Leah Reinert NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 4, Issue 1, February 2011, pages 124-126 Girl Power, Mainstreaming and Critical Mass: Women's Leadership and Policy Paradigm Shift in Germany's Red-Green Coalition, 1998–20021 Joyce Mushaben Journal of Women, Politics & Policy Volume 27, Issue 1-2, October 2005, pages 135-161 The Women, Peace and Security agenda and Australian leadership in the world: from rhetoric to commitment? Laura J. Shepherd & Jacqui True Australian Journal of International Affairs Volume 68, Issue 3, May 2014, pages 257-284 Why women count: Chinese women and the leadership of reform David S. G. Goodman Asian Studies Review Volume 26, Issue 3, September 2002, pages 331-353 Gender power under female leadership: a local women’s association in Japan Naomi Tsunematsu Japanese Studies Volume 24, Issue 1, May 2004, pages 97-114 Party politics, religion, and women's leadership: Lebanon in comparative perspective Jacques Kabbanji Executive Editor Contemporary Arab Affairs Volume 7, Issue 4, October 2014, pages 599-603 Rural Women, Decision Making and Leadership Within Environmental and Landcare Groups CL (Ciel) Claridge Rural Society Volume 8, Issue 3, January 1998, pages 183-195 Women Leaders in Small Groups Beth Glover Reed PhD Social Work With Groups Volume 6, Issue 3-4, October 1983, pages 35-42 Women's Prospects for Leadership in Social Welfare Patricia Yancey Martin PhD & Roslyn H. Chernesky DSW Administration in Social Work Volume 13, Issue 3-4, November 1989, pages 117-143 From Coach to Athletic Director: A Leadership Development Program for Women Becky L. Sisley & Gwen Steigelman Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 65, Issue 8, October 1994, pages 62-64 Networking for Women Leaders in Education Eleanor G. Hall, Helen Howell, Jean Bressler & Roberta Daniels Kappa Delta Pi Record Volume 23, Issue 1, October 1986, pages 12-15 Citizen journalism: Women leaders make their own news through video and blogging Sweta Singh Agenda Volume 22, Issue 77, January 2008, pages 82-89 Singular Leadership: Anna Howard Shaw, single women and the US woman suffrage movement Trisha Franzen Women's History Review Volume 17, Issue 3, July 2008, pages 419-434 COLLEGE TRAINING AND THE PREPARATION OF YOUNG WOMEN FOR MORAL AND RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP Luella Clay Carson Ph.D. Religious Education Volume 9, Issue 6, December 1914, pages 588-592 Women as Student Leaders Alison Bernstein Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning Volume 18, Issue 2, April 1986, pages 43-49 Women in Science and Technology: A Global Development Leadership Pilot Scheme Sarah Turnbull, Liza Howe-Walsh & Janis Shute NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 7, Issue 2, September 2014, pages 252-254 The role of women in the leadership of the churches in Swaziland Roger J. Cazziol Agenda Volume 8, Issue 14, January 1992, pages 80-81 A woman leader's experience in Korea Maria Cseh Human Resource Development International Volume 12, Issue 1, February 2009, pages 85-91 Leaders or Laggards: engendering sub-national governance through women's policy machineries in Spain and Poland Meg E. Rincker & Candice D. Ortbals Democratization Volume 16, Issue 2, April 2009, pages 269-297 Women Leaders in Sport Dana Massengale & Nancy Lough Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 81, Issue 4, April 2010, pages 6-8 Critical Race Theory and Community Colleges: Through the Eyes of Women Student Leaders of Color Dimpal Jain Community College Journal of Research and Practice Volume 34, Issue 1-2, December 2009, pages 78-91 Through the Labyrinth: The Truth About How WomenBecome Leaders Paige Haber NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2009, pages 249-251 The Emerging Economic Rationalist Discourse on Women and Leadership in Australian Agriculture Barbara Pint Rural Society Volume 8, Issue 3, January 1998, pages 223-233 Women leaders in higher education: shattering the myths Heather Maldonado Gender and Education pages 1-2 Prejudices, Preconceptions or Progress in Agriculture?: Rural non English speaking background women and leadership1 Jane Wilkinson Rural Society Volume 8, Issue 3, January 1998, pages 235-255 Educating Women and Men in the 21st Century: Gender Diversity, Leadership Opportunities Joan V. Gallos The Journal of Continuing Higher Education Volume 40, Issue 1, January 1992, pages 2-8 Beauty Queens and Unruly Women in the Year of the Woman Governor: Jennifer Granholm and the Visibility of Leadership Kristina Horn Sheeler Women's Studies in Communication Volume 33, Issue 1, May 2010, pages 34-53 Later Leaders in Education: Jennie Wahlert: Woman of Achievement L. Alberta Meyer Childhood Education Volume 69, Issue 3, March 1993, pages 164-166 Attitudes of Professional and Lay Leaders of Congregations Toward the Employment of Women as Religious School Administrators Sarah L. Small Jewish Education Volume 52, Issue 1, March 1984, pages 23-28 The leadership role of international law in enforcing women's rights: The Optional Protocol to the Women's Convention Kwong-Leung Tang Gender & Development Volume 8, Issue 3, November 2000, pages 65-73 Commentary: building science and leadership skills in African women in agricultural research and development Mary Njenga & Yvonne Pinto International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability Volume 9, Issue 4, November 2011, pages 479-483 Women, Men, and Leadership: A Critical Review of Assumptions, Practices, and Change in the Industrialized Nations Jeff Hearn & P. Wendy Parkin International Studies of Management & Organization Volume 16, Issue 3-4, September 1986, pages 33-60 ‘A living testimony of the heights to which a woman can rise’: Sarojini Naidu, Cissie Gool and the Politics of Women's Leadership in South Africa in the 1920s Patricia van der Spuy & Lindsay Clowes South African Historical Journal Volume 64, Issue 2, June 2012, pages 343-363 Women as Leaders: What Women Have Attained In and Through the Field of Physical Education Roberta J. Park The International Journal of the History of Sport Volume 27, Issue 7, May 2010, pages 1250-1276 Women Sports Leaders and Educators of Color—Their Socialization and Achievement Yevonne R. Smith Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 66, Issue 7, September 1995, pages 28-33 Pioneer Leaders in Women's Sports Joanna Davenport Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 58, Issue 3, March 1987, pages 46-50 A Time to Plant—Strategies to Increase the Number of Women in Athletic Leadership Positions Linda C. Delano Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 61, Issue 3, March 1990, pages 53-55 Global accountability and transnational networks: the Women Leaders' Network and Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Jacqui True The Pacific Review Volume 21, Issue 1, February 2008, pages 1-26 Women, leadership and gender politics in the interwar years: the case of Julia Flynn Marjorie Theobald History of Education Volume 29, Issue 1, January 2000, pages 63-77 Women's Leadership in Junior Girls' Basketball in Victoria: Foucault, Feminism and Disciplining Women Coaches Michael Burke & Chris Hallinan Sport in Society Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2006, pages 19-31 Developing Self-esteem and Leadership Skills in Native American Women: The Role Sports and Games Play Janice Jones Schroeder Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 66, Issue 7, September 1995, pages 48-51 The Use of Squad Leaders in a Basic Skills Program for College Women Corinne Crogen Journal of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Volume 20, Issue 4, April 1949, pages 241-293 There Are Just No Women Out There: How the industry justifies the exclusion of women from agricultural leadership Margaret Alston Rural Society Volume 8, Issue 3, January 1998, pages 197-208 From sea to cyberspace: women’s leadership and learning around information and communication technologies in Coastal Newfoundland Darlene E. Clover International Journal of Lifelong Education Volume 26, Issue 1, January 2007, pages 75-88 WOMEN LEADERS IN SMALL GROUPS Haworth Editorial Submission Social Work With Groups Volume 6, Issue 3-4, October 1983, page 33 Later Leaders in Education: Agnes Snyder: Dauntless Woman in Education 1885–1973 Margaret Rasmussen Childhood Education Volume 67, Issue 1, October 1990, pages 34-39 Psychological type profile of Protestant church leaders in Australia: are clergymen and clergywomen different? Mandy Robbins & Ruth Powell Mental Health, Religion & Culture Volume 18, Issue 7, August 2015, pages 576-585 The Decline of Women Leaders (Coaches and Athletic Directors) in Girls' Interscholastic Sport Programs in Virginia from 1972 to 1987 Mary Frances Heishman, Linda Bunker & Roland W. Tutwiler Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport Volume 61, Issue 1, March 1990, pages 103-107 Women as Leaders in Physical Education and School-Based Sports, 1865 to the 1930s Roberta J. Park & Joan S. Hult Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance Volume 64, Issue 3, March 1993, pages 35-40 Where Are the Women in Global Governance? Leaders, Wives and Hegemonic Masculinity in the G8 and G20 Summits Hugo Dobson Global Society Volume 26, Issue 4, October 2012, pages 429-449 ‘Women are supposed to be the leaders’: intersections of gender, race and colonisation in HIV prevention with Indigenous young people Vanessa Oliver, Sarah Flicker, Jessica Danforth, Erin Konsmo, Ciann Wilson, Randy Jackson, Jean-Paul Restoule, Tracey Prentice, June Larkin & Claudia Mitchell Culture, Health & Sexuality Volume 17, Issue 7, August 2015, pages 906-919 Valentine M. Moghadam, Suzanne Franzway and Mary Margaret Fonow (eds). Making Globalization Work for Women: The Role of Social Rights and Trade Union Leadership Stephanie M. Redden International Feminist Journal of Politics Volume 14, Issue 3, September 2012, pages 432-433 The rules of the game: women and the leaderist turn in higher education Louise Morley Gender and Education Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2013, pages 116-131 Women Leaders in Higher Education: Shattering the Myths Rebecca E. Crandall & Alyssa N. Rockenbach NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education pages 1-3 Weaving Our Voices an Open Group for Women Who Have Survived Childhood Sexual Abuse and Trauma Group Leaders Manual Mehdi Naïmi D.V.A.T.I., R.C.A.T. Canadian Art Therapy Association Journal Volume 16, Issue 2, December 2003, pages 34-35 “We are brown, we are short, we are fat … We are the face of Oaxaca”: Women Leaders in the Oaxaca Rebellion Lynn Stephen Socialism and Democracy Volume 21, Issue 2, July 2007, pages 97-112 Women of Color on the Rise: Leadership and Administration in Social Work Education and the Academy Edited by Halaevalu F. Ofahengaue Vakalahi and Wilma Peebles-Wilkins Valerie Borum PhDMSW Administration in Social Work Volume 36, Issue 1, January 2012, pages 101-103 Career Moves: Mentoring for Women Advancing their Career and Leadership in Academia by Athena Vongalis-Macros (Ed.) Norma T. Mertz NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education Volume 8, Issue 2, July 2015, pages 210-213 Women together again: A phenomenological study of leaderless women's groups Nathalie L. Kees The Journal for Specialists in Group Work Volume 24, Issue 3, September 1999, pages 288-305

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