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Leadership partagé

De Wikiberal

Le leadership partagé suppose un ensemble de pratiques qui sont adoptées par des individus à tous les niveaux d'une organisation plutôt que d'un ensemble de caractéristiques personnelles et d'attributs dont disposeraient certaines personnes situées au sommet d'une hiérarchie. La théorie du leadership partagé prend aussi en compte qu'il est de plus en plus difficile pour un seul individu de posséder toutes les compétences et toutes les aptitudes requises pour diriger une organisation de façon efficace.

Origine et définition du leadership partagé

L'origine du leadership partagé remonte au VIe siècle avant Jésus-Christ, grâce au philosophe chinois, Lao Tzu qui a écrit sur le "leader sage" dans son ouvrage, "Tao Te Ching". Sa philosophie apporte une contribution majeure au thème du partage du leadership avec les subordonnés. Le leader sage se contente d'un bon travail et il permet aux autres de prendre la parole. Le leader ne prend pas tout le crédit pour ce qui arrive et il n'a pas besoin de la gloire du leadership narcissique.

Le concept fut relativement négligé notamment tout au long du 19ème et du 20ème siècle sous la domination du paradigme du leadership vertical. Durant cette époque, les organisations opéraient avec un leadership managérial caractérisé par un leader dominant avec du pouvoir sur les autres et exerçant une influence sur de multiples subordonnés, lesquels avaient relativement peu d'influence sur la décision de management de leurs supérieurs.

Une abondance d'études sur le leadership partagé provient des domaines de la santé et de l'éducation, deux secteurs qui sont particulièrement ouvert à cette idée. Les études à l'extérieur de ces deux secteurs d'activité sont rares, mais elles incluent une collection de types d'organisations et de groupes variés.

Peter Gronn (2002) distingue deux formes basiques du leadership partagé, l'un additif et l'autre holistique. La forme additive du leadership partagé suppose la dispersion des tâches parmi les membres au travers d'une organisation sans prise en compte explicite des interactions effectuées par les membres. Tel est le sens le plus commun du terme de ceux qui préconisent que "tout le monde est leader". La forme holistique du leadership partagé porte sur l'interdépendance de ceux qui fournissent le leadership. Cela suppose que la totalité de la fonction du leadership est supérieure à la somme des parties car il existe des niveaux élevés d'interdépendance entre ceux qui fournissent le leadership. La forme holistique du leadership partagé produit des activités de leadership qui émergent dans un processus dynamique, multi-directionnel et social qui mène à un apprentissage pour les personnes concernées, ainsi que pour leurs organisations.

Le partage du pouvoir et de l'autorité

Le leadership partagé repose sur une invitation à se joindre au but de l'entreprise ou à rejoindre l'entreprise commune. Cela signifie que le partage du pouvoir et de l'autorité, invitent les autres à développer l'organisation. Le leadership partagé est un leadership dynamique puisque'il s'appuie sur un échange dynamique d'influence latérale entre pairs. Le traditionnel chef de file "vertical", qu'il soit nommé ou émergent, n'est pas la seule source d'influence. Les membres de l'équipe sont l'autre source puissante d'influence. En ce sens, le leadership partagé est un processus de collaboration, émergent de l'interaction des membres du groupe qui négocient fluidement une compréhension partagée sur la façon de piloter les décisions et d'exercer l'autorité. Par conséquent, l'influence du leadership provient d'un leader ou des leaders, de l'interaction des membres de l'équipe et de la négociation sur la compréhension commune de l'autorité. Le leadership partagé n'est donc pas une alternance d'influence entre leaders où le rôle de leader passerait d'un individu à un autre, mais comme un processus qualitativement différent et socialement interactif. Il s'agit d'un processus social qui exige des compétences propres (comme un engagement dans l'influence latérale, une acceptation des responsabilités, une réponse aux attentes de performances des pairs), qui sont distinctes des compétences verticales traditionnelles du chef de file. Ces compétences brouillent nettement la distinction entre le leader et le suiveur sans toutefois l'éliminer complètement. Cependant, cette distinction leader-suiveur devient moins utile dans la compréhension et dans la description du leadership partagé.

Le leadership partagé s'associe au leadership fondé sur les valeurs car des valeurs claires au sein d'une organisation ont tendance à être largement partagées. Ces valeurs prescrivent les comportements qui sont attendus au sein de l'organisation. Dès lors, l'entrepreneur est généralement responsable de la vision de ce que l'entreprise va ressembler. Cette image est fortement influencée par ses valeurs personnelles. En outre, pour les personnes qui s'engagent dans l'expérience entrepreneuriale au fil du temps, la vision de l'entreprise articule la substance de ces objectifs. Les valeurs sur lesquelles est fondée la vision, représentent les principes directeurs de la façon d'atteindre ces objectifs.

Les membres d'une équipe avec un leadership partagé affichent fréquemment des comportements de concert les uns avec les autres. En d'autres termes, les membres de l'équipe expriment un comportement groupé de façon à influencer volontairement les autres membres. A défaut de répondre à cette expression, l'influence cohésive conduit les membres leaders (initiateurs) à prendre des mesures correctives contre les personnes qui ne choisissent pas les bons comportements. Le but est soit d'influencer ces membres à s'adapter aux comportements souhaités, soit de les amener à quitter l'équipe.

Du fait qu'une personne puisse influencer asymétriquement les autres, même brièvement, certains groupes ou équipe se prémunissent d'un leadership sauvage en établissant des règles de conduite à savoir la capacité de promulguer un leadership partagé, règle spécifiant la capacité de d'échanger aisément et souplement les rôles de leader et de suiveur entre les membres de l'équipe en réponse à des conditions changeantes.

Annexes

Bibliographie

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    • Larry D. Shinn, "Top Down or Bottom Up? Leadership and Shared Governance on Campus", Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, Vol 46, n°4, July, pp52-55
    • Snejana Slantcheva-Durst, "Shared Leadership as an Outcome of Team Processes: A Case Study", Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Vol 38, n°11, November, pp1017-1029
    • D. Wang, D. A. Waldman, Z. Zhang, "A metaanalysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 99, pp181–198
  • 2015,
    • Craig L Pearce, "Developmental health services leadership: Integrating hierarchical and shared leadership for health services organizational learning", Health Services Management Research, August-November, Vol 28, n°3-4, pp76-82
    • Craig L Pearce, Christina L. Wassenaar, "Shared Leadership in Practice: When Does it Work Best?", Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol 29, n°3.
  • 2016, Rachel Stark, "Cultivating Shared Leadership with Docents and Staff", Journal of Museum Education, Vol 41, n°1, January, pp22-28

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Liens externes