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Leadership de la direction d'école

De Wikiberal

Le leadership de la direction d'école (principal leadership ou principalship) inclut le directeur d'établissement scolaire, le chef d'établissement (Le Principal) ou le président et le Doyen d'université. L'analyse du leadership de direction repose sur l'identification des connaissances, des compétences et des dispositions qui permettent de comprendre pourquoi les directeurs d'école réussissent.

Leur succès est souvent déterminé selon trois variables :

  • L'amélioration des performances à un rythme exceptionnel avec des comparaisons basées sur des tests à l'échelle de la nation et suite aux résultats d'examen des élèves
  • Le rapport positif de l'école par l'inspection pédagogique
  • La reconnaissance par les pairs (à travers les réseaux locaux, régionaux et nationaux des associations professionnelles) attestant que le directeur de l'établissement scolaire est efficace.

Les premières fonctions du principal consistent en la construction d'une vision, l'établissement une orientation, compréhension et aide au développement des personnes, restructuration de l'organisation et gestion de l'enseignement et de l'apprentissage.

La préparation de la succession du leadership

Un leadership stratégique qui ne prévoit pas de plan de succession au leadership de la direction d'une école est l'une des sources les plus courantes des blocages de progression des écoles, en dépit de ce que les enseignants font effectivement pour la faire progresser. Des études au Canada[1] mettent en évidence les effets dévastateurs de la succession principale, en particulier sur les initiatives visant à accroître la performance des élèves. Les changements fréquents des chefs d'établissement sont un phénomène courant dans de nombreuses écoles en Amérique du Nord. Le processus d'amélioration des écoles est souvent long à se mettre en place. Le suivi des progrès n'est pas toujours évident et il est difficilement comparable d'un établissement à un autre. Et les directeurs d'écoles, lorsqu'ils sont déplacés avant que leurs résultats soient apparents, annihilent toutes les tentatives de réformes et de changements. Du fait de leur déplacement, pour une raison ou une autre, les initiatives d'amélioration de l'école finissent pas s'étioler ou agoniser jusqu'à leur mort. À l'inverse, la nomination d'une nouvelle direction faisant preuve de leadership stratégique transforme les écoles en difficulté. Toutefois, la direction de l'école n'à pas le monopole du leadership. Le succès ou l'échec de l'établissement n'est pas obligatoirement et entièrement de sa responsabilité.

La qualité de l'enseignement est améliorée quand les directeurs motivent les enseignants par des pratiques comme celle de solliciter des conseils et des opinions auprès des enseignants, tout en faisant leur éloge.

Les valeurs de responsabilité sont évidentes chez certains directeurs d'établissement, ainsi que des préoccupations concernant les conséquences de leur travail, en particulier pour les étudiants. Ces leaders estiment que la mise au point d'une école doit être réalisée selon les critères des meilleurs intérêts des étudiants, que tous les enfants puissent apprendre et doivent réussir, et selon le postulat que tous les enfants ont un potentiel qui doit être transformé en réalisation.


Annexes

Notes et références

    • 2000, R. Macmillan, "Leadership succession: Cultures of teaching and educational change", In: N. Bascia & A. Hargreaves, dir., "The sharp edge of educational change: Teaching, leading and the realities of reform", London: Routledge/Falmer Press, pp52-71
    • 2006, D. Fink, C. Brayman, "School leadership succession and the challenge of change", Educational Administration Quarterly, 42(1), pp62-89

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Liens internes