Vous pouvez contribuer simplement à Wikibéral. Pour cela, demander un compte à admin@liberaux.org. N'hésitez pas!



Leadership des enseignants

De Wikiberal

Le leadership des enseignants (teacher leadership) fait partie d'un ensemble plus général du leadership scolaire et du leadership pédagogique. L'enseignant leader "conteste le statu quo" parmi les pratiques courantes de l'enseignement. Le changement et le développement organisationnel sont améliorés lorsque le leadership est généralisé, c'est à dire quand les enseignants ont la possibilité de collaborer et de participer activement au changement scolaire et à l'innovation pédagogique.

Le leadership entrepreneurial et pédagogique des enseignants

Les enseignants peuvent être vus comme des "agences" ou des entrepreneurs, selon la terminologie de l'analyse économique dont la tâche primordiale est de proposer une bonne éducation, si ce n'est de l'améliorer. Cette agence est en relation avec une autorité locale, communautaire, municipale, régionale, nationale ou supra-nationale. Ils font preuve d'esprit d'entreprise avec si possible un leadership entrepreneurial.

Trois principes cardinaux gouvernent au fonctionnement du leadership d'enseignant :

  • la responsabilité d'une autonomie professionnelle,
  • la prise en charge effective de leur responsabilité mutuelle
  • la collaboration transversale.

Les enseignants travaillent à la fois individuellement et également de concert avec d'autres enseignants afin d'améliorer leurs enseignements. Ce leadership d'enseignant s'identifie donc à un leadership transformationnel où ils sont des moteurs principaux d'amélioration tandis que les instituts de leur formation ou les principes gouvernementaux et administratifs insistent généralement plus sur leur formation pédagogique propre. Un changement réel dans la vision du leadership d'enseignement se produit lorsque les enseignants sont pleinement engagés comme agents actifs dans le processus de la recherche et du développement pédagogique.

Quelquefois le leadership des enseignants passe par l'innovation et la créativité (leadership créatif) en utilisant des formes de pédagogie plus accessibles à leurs élèves. Par exemple, dans le domaine du management, les films[1] et les pièces de théâtre sont des éléments très instructifs pour faire passer un message ou une connaissance tacite.

Le leadership des enseignants sur leurs pairs

Le leadership des enseignants ne se confine pas à des relations leader-suiveur entre eux-mêmes et leurs élèves. Ils exercent aussi une influence sur leurs collègues. Les enseignants sont des leaders transformationnels lorsqu'ils adoptent des comportements tels que la communication d'une vision convaincante (leadership visionnaire), la transmission d'objectifs assimilable à des critères atteignables d'une haute performance, la modélisation de leur rôle de leader et par la projection vers autrui de la confiance qu'ils ont en eux et par l'expression de celle-ci dans les capacités des autres collègues pour qu'ils atteignent leurs objectifs.

L'enseignant leader stimule intellectuellement ses collègues en les encourageant à prendre des risques intellectuels, à réexaminer les hypothèses, en regardant leur travail à partir de différents points de vue, en repensant la façon dont le travail peut être réalisé. Et par ailleurs il adopte un leadership appréciatif avec un questionnement appréciatif, une réflexion critique, une dissection analytique et un sens du discernement plus élevé.

L'enseignant leader fournit un soutien et une considération individualisés en connaissant les besoins de ses "suiveurs" et en les élevant à des niveaux plus matures. Il utilise parfois la technique de la délégation pour permettre l'émergence d'opportunités à ses protégés afin qu'ils atteignent des normes plus élevées de développement. Cet ensemble de comportements confère du respect du chef de file pour ses collègues et des préoccupations au sujet de leurs sentiments et de leurs besoins personnels (compréhension émotionnelle et soutien).

Les enseignants leaders mettent l'accent à la fois sur le but collectif et sur un objectif individualisé. Les enseignants charismatiques engendrent parmi leurs collègues des niveaux exceptionnellement élevés de confiance, de loyauté, de respect et d'engagement. Mais certains de ces résultats dépendent de la nature du leadership charismatique : un charisme socialisé ou personnel. Les enseignants charismatiques et socialisés sont également transformationnels. C'est-à-dire qu'ils aident à apporter des améliorations souhaitables dans l'organisation. Ils acquièrent l'engagement de leurs collègues à travers la nature convaincante de leur vision et de leurs idées, ainsi que leur réelle préoccupation pour leur bien-être. Les enseignants charismatiques personnalisés sont peu sensibles à la transformation pédagogique de leurs collègues. Ils peuvent, pas exemple, avoir une stature charismatique en vertu de leurs qualités personnelles attrayantes. Mais ils sont proches d'un leadership machiavélien, voire toxique lorsqu'ils tentent de servir leurs propres intérêts et qu'ils ont besoin de leurs collègue pour obtenir plus de pouvoir.

Les contraintes de la répartition du leadership entre les enseignants

Bien qu'a priori le leadership réparti entre les enseignants soit souhaitable, une certaine prudence doit être appliquée à ce dogme du fait des difficultés potentielles. Des enseignants leaders, nommés officiellement par la direction de l'école ou par un organe supérieur, n'impliquent pas automatiquement le respect et l'autorité. Mais il est un fait encore plus crédible que des leaders enseignants informels peuvent être particulièrement vulnérables à leur absence d'autorité formelle.

Lorsque le leadership est distribué en fonction de certaines expertises il n'est pas certain que les difficultés liées à l'évaluation et aux ambiguïtés entourant le processus d'évaluation ne fassent pas émerger un défi à la distribution du leadership par certains contestataires. De plus, la nomination des enseignants leaders par des collègues peut ne pas concrétiser une expertise potentielle au sein du groupe, car les collègues peuvent choisir leur leader en utilisant d'autres critères que l'expertise. Il serait naïf d'ignorer les principaux obstacles syndicaux, politiques, structurels, culturels et micro-politiques opérant dans le système scolaire et qui rendent difficile le leadership distribué à mettre en œuvre dans les établissements scolaires.

Le leadership distribué peut être considéré comme menaçant pour ceux qui ont une position formelle du pouvoir. Cela n'affecte pas seulement leur ego ou leur autorité perçue, mais aussi parce que cela met les enseignants leaders dans une position vulnérable car ils doivent renoncer au contrôle direct sur certaines activités.

Les structures scolaires actuelles, telles que les séparations en discipline ou des hiérarchies verticales rigides délimitent le rôle et la responsabilité de chacun. Elles empêchent les enseignants d'atteindre l'autonomie et de prendre des rôles de leadership distribué.

Lorsque le leadership est distribué comme une répartition, et qu'il n'est pas exécuté correctement, cela peut être interprété comme une perception d'une erreur de la délégation et impliquant donc la responsabilité du leadership de la direction d'école.

Annexes

Notes et références

  1. * 2000, K. Aupperle, S. M. Dunphy, "Using theatrical films to bring management concepts to life: A new pedagogy", Decision Sciences Institute 2000 Proceedings, Vol 1, November 18-21, Orlando, Florida, pp215-217

Bibliographie

  • 1928, T. V. Smith, "The Leader as Teacher and Philosopher", Social Service Review, Vol 2, n°4, Dec., pp565-578
  • 1932, Ethel L. Crutchfield, "The Development of Leadership in Prospective Teachers", Peabody Journal of Education, Vol 9, n°6, May, pp362-366
  • 1944, Harold Haydon, "Teachers Can Be Leaders", Journal of Educational Sociology, Vol 17, n°7, Leadership In Democracy, Mar., pp411-416
  • 1947, Arthur W. Francis, Carlos de Zafra Jr., "Teachers and Politicians Leadership", The Clearing House, Vol 22, n°4, Dec., pp212-214
  • 1949, E. T. McSwain, "Parent-Teacher Leadership for Better Schools", The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol 31, n°4, Dec., pp175-177
  • 1952, Harold Saxe Tuttle, "Club Leadership: Excellent Teacher Preparation", The Clearing House, Vol 26, n°7, Mar., pp430-432
  • 1956, John B. Barnes, "Barriers to Community Leadership for Teachers", The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol 38, n°2, Nov., pp59-61
  • 1965, Lois N. Nelson, "Modes of Teacher Leadership during Language Instruction", The Elementary School Journal, Vol 66, n°2, Nov., pp92-96
  • 1973, Ralph W. Larkin, "Contextual Influences on Teacher Leadership Styles", Sociology of Education, Vol 46, n°4, Autumn, pp471-479
  • 1977, Ruth Drake, "Leadership: The Teacher's Option", The Clearing House, Vol 50, n°7, Mar., pp291-293
  • 1978, Barbara G. Burch, W. Elzie Danley Sr., "Teacher Perceptions of the Effective Instructional Leader", The Clearing House, Vol 52, n°2, Oct., pp78-79
  • 1979, Jane Butler Kahle, "Teacher Leadership + Parent Education = A Formula for Good Schools", The American Biology Teacher, Vol 41, n°2, Feb., pp79-100
  • 1980, Linda S. Wojtan, "Preservice Teacher Education: An Opportunity for Area Center Involvement and Leadership", A Journal of Opinion, Vol 10, n°3/4, African Outreach, Autumn - Winter, pp22-25
  • 1981, Leon Durkin, Joe M. Smith, "A Challenge for Leadership of Teacher Education in the Eighties", Peabody Journal of Education, Vol 58, n°4, Issues and Trends in American Education, Jul., pp183-187
  • 1985, Denis P. Doyle, Terry W. Hartle, "Leadership in Education: Governors, Legislators, and Teachers", The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol 67, n°1, Sep., pp21-27
  • 1987,
    • Joseph J. Blase, "Dimensions of Effective School Leadership: The Teacher's Perspective", American Educational Research Journal, Vol 24, n°4, Winter, pp589-610
    • Joseph J. Blase, "The Teachers' Perspective on Ineffective School Leadership", The High School Journal, Vol 70, n°4, Apr. - May, pp167-172
    • J. V. D., "College Teachers' Struggle: Failure of Leadership", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol 22, n°39, 26 Sep., pp1640-1642
    • Joseph W. Licata, Charles J. Newman, "Teacher Leadership and Classroom Climate as Predictors of Student Brinkmanship", The High School Journal, Vol 70, n°2, Dec. - Jan., pp102-110
  • 1988, Roland S. Barth, "Principals, Teachers, and School Leadership", The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol 69, n°9, May, pp639-642
  • 1989,
    • Paul V. Bredeson, "Redefining Leadership and the Roles of School Principals: Responses to Changes in the Professional Worklife of Teachers", The High School Journal, Vol 73, n°1, Oct. - Nov., pp9-20
    • William P. Keim, "Leadership Workshop: The Writing-Grammar Battle: Adventures of a Teacher/Administrator", The English Journal, Vol 78, n°3, Mar., pp66-70
  • 1990,
    • J. Denny, M. Smylie, "Teacher leadership: Tensions and ambiguities in organizational perspective", Educational Administration Quarterly, 26(3), pp235-259
    • Stuart R. Thompson, "Higher Education, Leadership, and Teacher Preparation", Visual Arts Research, Vol 16, n°2(32), Fall, pp36-42
  • 1991, P. A. Wasley, "Teachers who lead: The rhetoric of reform and the realities of practice", New York: Teachers College Press
  • 1992, Mark A. Smylie, "Teachers' Reports of Their Interactions with Teacher Leaders concerning Classroom Instruction", The Elementary School Journal, Vol 93, n°1, Sep., pp85-98
  • 1993, Madalyn Cioci, Valerie E. Lee, Julia B. Smith, "Teachers and Principals: Gender-Related Perceptions of Leadership and Power in Secondary Schools", Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol 15, n°2, Summer, pp153-180
  • 1994,
    • Vanessa DiMauro, Shahaf Gal, "Use of Telecommunications for Reflective Discourse of Science Teacher Leaders", Journal of Science Education and Technology, Vol 3, n°2, Jun., pp123-135
    • Kenneth J. Tewel, "The Transition Period in Restructuring High Schools: Teachers as Leaders", The Clearing House, Vol 67, n°6, Jul. - Aug., pp331-336
  • 1995,
    • Marcella L. Bullmaster, Velma L. Cobb, Linda Darling-Hammond, "Rethinking Teacher Leadership Through Professional Development Schools", The Elementary School Journal, Vol 96, n°1, Special Issue: Teacher Leadership, Sep., pp87-106
    • William A. Firestone, Marjorie F. Heller, "Who's in Charge Here? Sources of Leadership for Change in Eight Schools", The Elementary School Journal, Vol 96, n°1, Special Issue: Teacher Leadership, Sep., pp65-86
    • Judith Warren Little, "Contested Ground: The Basis of Teacher Leadership in Two Restructuring High Schools", The Elementary School Journal, Vol 96, n°1, Special Issue: Teacher Leadership, Sep., pp47-63
    • Mark A. Smylie, "New Perspectives on Teacher Leadership", The Elementary School Journal, Vol 96, n°1, Special Issue: Teacher Leadership, Sep., pp3-7
    • Todd Whitaker, "Accomplishing Change in Schools: The Importance of Informal Teacher Leaders", The Clearing House, Vol 68, n°6, Jul. - Aug., pp356-357
  • 1996, Nina Bascia, "Teacher Leadership: Contending with Adversity", Canadian Journal of Education / Revue canadienne de l'éducation, Vol 21, n°2, Spring, pp155-169
  • 1997,
    • DeBorah A. Carr, "Collegial Leaders: Teachers Who Want More than Just a Job", The Clearing House, Vol 70, n°5, May - Jun., pp240-242
    • Monica Coyle, "Teacher Leadership vs. School Management: Flatten the Hierarchies", The Clearing House, Vol 70, n°5, May - Jun., pp236-239
    • Doris Jantzi, Kenneth Leithwood, "Teachers' perceptions of transformational leadership: A replication", Journal of Educational Administration, 35(4), pp312-331
    • Patrice R. Leblanc & Maria M. Shelton, "Teacher Leadership: The Needs of Teachers", Action in Teacher Education, Vol 19, n°3, October, pp32-48
    • Diana G. Pounder, "Teacher Teams: Promoting Teacher Involvement and Leadership in Secondary Schools", The High School Journal, Vol 80, n°2, Dec- Jan.), pp117-124
    • Kathryn S. Whitaker, "Developing teacher leadership and the management team concept: A case study", The Teacher Educator, Vol 33, n°1, June, pp1-16
  • 1999,
    • Sharon Conley, Donna E. Muncey, "Teachers Talk about Teaming and Leadership in Their Work", Theory into Practice, Vol 38, n°1, Redefining Teacher Quality, Winter, pp46-55
    • Doris Jantzi, Kenneth Leithwood, "The relative effects of principal and teacher sources of leadership on student engagement with school", Educational Administration Quarterly, Vol 35(Supplemental), pp679-706
    • Julie A. Sherrill, "Preparing Teachers for Leadership Roles in the 21st Century", Theory into Practice, Vol 38, n°1, Redefining Teacher Quality, Winter, pp56-61
  • 2000,
    • Ross Brooker et Ian Macpherson, "Positioning Stakeholders in Curriculum Leadership: How can teacher educators work with teachers to discover and create their place?", Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, Vol 28, n°1, March, pp69-85
    • J. Durrant, D. Frost, M. Head, G. Holden, "Teacher-led School Improvement", London: RoutledgeFalmer
    • D. Frost, "Teacher-led School Improvement: Agency and Strategy" part 1, Management in Education, 14 (4) pp21-24
    • D. Frost, "Teacher-led School Improvement: Agency and Strategy" part 2, Management in Education, 14 (5) pp17-20
    • B. A. Tillman, "Quiet leadership: Informal mentoring of beginning teachers", Momentum, 31(1), pp24-26
  • 2001,
    • Roland S. Barth, "Teacher Leader", The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol 82, n°6, Feb., pp443-449
    • M. Boardman, "The value of shared leadership: Tasmanian Teachers’ and Leaders’ Differing Views", International Studies in Educational Administration, 29(3), p2
  • 2002,
    • Audrey Addi-Raccah, Hanna Ayalon, "Gender Inequality in Leadership Positions of Teachers", British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol 23, n°2, Jun., pp157-177
    • Jo Blase & Joseph Blase, "Teachers' Perceptions of Principals' Instructional Leadership and Implications Leadership and Policy in Schools", Vol 1, n°3, September, pp256-264
    • F. Crowther, S. Kaagan, M. Ferguson, L. Hann, "Developing Teacher Leaders: How Teacher Leadership Enhances School Success", Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
    • J. Durrant et D. Frost, "Teachers as Leaders: Exploring the Impact of Teacher-led Development", School Leadership and Management, 22 (2), pp143-161
  • Scott C. Greenwood, George P. White, "A Situational Approach to Middle Level Teacher Leadership", Middle School Journal, Vol 33, n°4, March, pp29-33
  • 2003,
    • Lei Chang, "Variable Effects of Children's Aggression, Social Withdrawal, and Prosocial Leadership as Functions of Teacher Beliefs and Behaviors", Child Development, Vol 74, n°2, Mar. - Apr., pp535-548
    • A. Harris, "Teacher leadership and school improvement", In: C. Chapman, C. Day, A. Harris, M. Hadfield, A. Hargreaves, D. Hopkins, dir., "Effective Leadership for School Improvement", London, Routledge Falmer
    • J. W. Little, "Constructions of Teacher Leadership in Three Periods of Policy and Reform Activism", School Leadership and Management, 23 (4), pp401-419
  • 2004,
    • Kathy L. Adams, W. Grant Hambright, "Encouraged or Discouraged? Women Teacher Leaders Becoming Principals", The Clearing House, Vol 77, n°5, May - Jun., pp209-211
    • Floyd Beachum & Audrey M. Dentith, "Teacher Leaders Creating Cultures of School Renewal and Transformation", The Educational Forum, Vol 68, n°3, September, pp276-286
    • Richard F. Bowman, "Teachers as Leaders", The Clearing House, Vol 77, n°5, May - Jun., pp187-189
    • Karen Duke, Jennifer York-Barr, "What Do We Know about Teacher Leadership? Findings from Two Decades of Scholarship", Review of Educational Research, Vol 74, n°3, Autumn, pp255-316
    • Alma Harris, "Teacher leadership and distributed leadership: An exploration of the literature", Leading and Managing, 10(2), pp1-10
    • Alma Harris, D. Muijs, "Improving schools through teacher leadership", London: Oxford University Press
    • J. York-Barr, K. Duke, "What do we know about teacher leadership? Findings from two decades of scholarship", Review of Educational Research , 74(3), pp255-316
  • 2005,
    • Richard F. Bowman, "Teacher as Servant Leader", The Clearing House, Vol 78, n°6, Jul. - Aug., pp257-259
    • Helen M. Duffy, "Preparing Teachers to Build Leadership among Underserved Students", The English Journal, Vol 95, n°2, Nov., pp71-76
    • G. Furman, C. Shields, "How does leadership promote successful teaching and learning for diverse students?", In: W. A. Firestone, C. Riehl, dir., "A New Agenda for Research in Educational Leadership", Teachers College Press, New York, NY, pp101-18
    • Callie Grant, "Teacher leadership: gendered responses and interpretations", Agenda, Vol 19, n°65, January, pp44-57
    • J. Murphy, "Connecting teacher leadership and school improvement", Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
  • 2006,
    • Elizabeth Craig, Christopher Steel, "Reworking Industrial Models, Exploring Contemporary Ideas, and Fostering Teacher Leadership", The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol 87, n°9, May, pp676-680
    • Helen M. Marks, Susan M. Printy, "Shared Leadership for Teacher and Student Learning", Theory into Practice, Vol 45, n°2, Learning, Teaching, Leading: A Global Perspective, Spring, pp125-132
    • Judy Parr, Lorrae Ward, "Authority, Volunteerism, and Sustainability: Creating and Sustaining an Online Community through Teacher Leadership", Leadership and Policy in Schools, Vol 5, n°2, July, pp109-129
  • 2007,
    • Nicole A. Chilla, Heleny Cook, Diane Waff, "From the Secondary Section: Leadership for Literacy: Teachers Raising Expectations and Opportunities", The English Journal, Vol 96, n°5, May, pp12-14
    • W. A. Firestone, M. C. Martinez, "Districts, teacher leaders, and distributed leadership: Changing instructional practice", Leadership and Policy in Schools, 6(1), pp3-35
  • 2008,
    • Vicky Farrow, Sandra Harris, Hollis Lowery-Moore, "Extending Transfer of Learning Theory to Transformative Learning Theory: A Model for Promoting Teacher Leadership", Theory into Practice, Vol 47, n°4, Collaborative Learning Communities in Schools, Fall, pp318-326
    • Rahim J. Jones, Carol A. Mullen, "Teacher leadership capacity-building: developing democratically accountable leaders in schools", Teacher Development, Vol 12, n°4, November, pp329-340
  • 2009,
    • Femke P. Geijsel, Peter J. C. Sleegers, Reinoud D. Stoel, Meta L. Krüger, "The Effect of Teacher Psychological and School Organizational and Leadership Factors on Teachers' Professional Learning in Dutch Schools", The Elementary School Journal, Vol 109, n°4, Mar., pp406-427
    • Melinda M. Mangin & Sara Ray Stoelinga, "The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles", The Educational Forum, Vol 74, n°1, December, pp49-62
    • Michael D. Rosenberg, Robert Vogel, Deborah S. Yost, "Transitioning from Teacher to Instructional Leader", Middle School Journal, Vol 40, n°3, January, pp20-27
  • 2010, Ana M. Elfers, Hilary Loeb, Margaret L. Plecki, "Possibilities and Potential for Improving Instructional Leadership: Examining the Views of National Board Teachers", Theory Into Practice, Vol 49, n°3, June, pp223-232
  • 2012,
    • Laura Baecher, "Pathways to teacher leadership among English-as-a-second-language teachers: professional development by and for emerging teacher leaders", Professional Development in Education, Vol 38, n°2, April, pp317-330
    • Janet C. Fairman & Sarah V. Mackenzie, "Spheres of teacher leadership action for learning", Professional Development in Education, Vol 38, n°2, April, pp229-246
    • Laura C. S. Jones, Maureen D. Neumann, P. Taylor Webb, "Claiming the Political: The Forgotten Terrain of Teacher Leadership Knowledge", Action in Teacher Education, Vol 34, n°1, March, pp2-13
  • 2013,
    • Joanne Deppeler, Jahirul Mullick, Umesh Sharma, "School teachers' perception about distributed leadership practices for inclusive education in primary schools in Bangladesh", School Leadership & Management, Vol 33, n°2, April, pp151-168
    • Loyiso C. Jita & Matseliso L. Mokhele, "The role of lead teachers in instructional leadership: A case study of environmental learning in South Africa", Education as Change, Vol 17, Supplement 1, December, pp123-135




The Nature of Teacher Leadership in Schools as Reciprocal Influences Between Teacher Leaders and Principals Kirk D. Anderson School Effectiveness and School Improvement Volume 15, Issue 1, March 2004, pages 97-113 Teacher Leadership and Intellectual Stimulation: Improving Students' Approaches to Studying through Intrinsic Motivation San Bolkan, Alan K. Goodboy & Darrin J. Griffin Communication Research Reports Volume 28, Issue 4, October 2011, pages 337-346 A Contemporary Leadership Model to Promote Teacher Leadership Harold L. Bishop, Alice Tinley & Barbara T. Berman Action in Teacher Education Volume 19, Issue 3, October 1997, pages 77-81 Leadership redefined: an evocative context for teacher leadership Linda Lambert School Leadership & Management Volume 23, Issue 4, November 2003, pages 421-430 The Crossroads of Teacher Leadership and Action Research Jean S. Lee, Deb Sachs & Lynn Wheeler The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas Volume 87, Issue 5, September 2014, pages 218-223 ‘Teacher leadership’: values and voice David Frost School Leadership & Management Volume 28, Issue 4, September 2008, pages 337-352 A fresh look at graduate programs in teacher leadership in the United States Jack Leonard, Katherine Petta & Christina Porter Professional Development in Education Volume 38, Issue 2, April 2012, pages 189-204 Politics, School Improvement, and Social Justice: A Triadic Model of Teacher Leadership P. Taylor Webb, Maureen Neumann & Laura C. Jones The Educational Forum Volume 68, Issue 3, September 2004, pages 254-262 School–University Partnerships and Teacher Leadership: Doing It Right Lynne Miller The Educational Forum Volume 79, Issue 1, January 2015, pages 24-29 Innovative Programs for Teacher Leadership Rochelle Clemson-Ingram & Ralph Fessler Action in Teacher Education Volume 19, Issue 3, October 1997, pages 95-106 Teacher leadership as intellectual leadership: creating spaces for alternative voices in the English school system Howard Stevenson Professional Development in Education Volume 38, Issue 2, April 2012, pages 345-360 Teacher learning in a mathematics and science inquiry professional development program: first steps in emergent teacher leadership Jan A. Yow & Christine Lotter Professional Development in Education Volume 42, Issue 2, March 2016, pages 325-351 Conceptualizing teacher leadership in a Chinese, policy-driven context: a research agenda Dora Ho & Leon Paul Tikly School Effectiveness and School Improvement Volume 23, Issue 4, December 2012, pages 401-416 Teacher Leadership for Change Susan Brondyk & Randi Stanulis Kappa Delta Pi Record Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2014, pages 13-17 Teacher leadership and professional development: examining links between two concepts central to school improvement Philip E. Poekert Professional Development in Education Volume 38, Issue 2, April 2012, pages 169-188 Contesting the orthodoxy of teacher leadership Tanya Fitzgerald & Helen M. Gunter International Journal of Leadership in Education Volume 11, Issue 4, October 2008, pages 331-340 From professional development to system change: teacher leadership and innovation David Frost Professional Development in Education Volume 38, Issue 2, April 2012, pages 205-227 Teacher Leadership: Professional Right and Responsibility Eloise M. Forster Action in Teacher Education Volume 19, Issue 3, October 1997, pages 82-94 From Preservice to Teacher Leadership: Meeting the Future in Educator Preparation John M. Holland, Jon Eckert & Megan M. Allen Action in Teacher Education Volume 36, Issue 5-6, November 2014, pages 433-445 Teacher Leadership: More than Just a Feel-Good Factor? Alma Harris Leadership and Policy in Schools Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2005, pages 201-219 Commonalities and Differences in Teacher Leadership at the Elementary, Middle, and High School Levels Mary Stone, Jacqueline Horejs & Ana Lomas Action in Teacher Education Volume 19, Issue 3, October 1997, pages 49-64 Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) professional development as a predictor of teacher leadership in the United States Karen M. Watt, Jeffery Huerta & Shirley J. Mills Professional Development in Education Volume 36, Issue 4, December 2010, pages 547-562 Schools as Learning Organisations - Effects on Teacher Leadership and Student Outcomes Halia Silins & Bill Mulford School Effectiveness and School Improvement Volume 15, Issue 3-4, September 2004, pages 443-466 Teacher leadership enactment in professional learning community contexts: towards a better understanding of the phenomenon Salleh Hairon, Jonathan Wee Pin Goh & Catherine Siew Kheng Chua School Leadership & Management Volume 35, Issue 2, March 2015, pages 163-182 Teacher Leadership: towards a research agenda DAVID FROST & ALMA HARRIS Cambridge Journal of Education Volume 33, Issue 3, November 2003, pages 479-498 Gaining Confidence, Managing Conflict: Early Career Conceptions of Teacher Leadership During Graduate Coursework Cynthia L. Carver & Jeanne M. Meier The New Educator Volume 9, Issue 3, July 2013, pages 173-191 Principal and Teacher Leadership Effects: A replication Kenneth Leithwood & Doris Jantzi School Leadership & Management Volume 20, Issue 4, November 2000, pages 415-434 Developing Teacher Leadership in Singapore: Multiple Pathways for Differentiated Journeys A. Lin Goodwin, Ee Ling Low & Pak Tee Ng The New Educator Volume 11, Issue 2, April 2015, pages 107-120 Authority, Volunteerism, and Sustainability: Creating and Sustaining an Online Community through Teacher Leadership Lorrae Ward & Judy Parr Leadership and Policy in Schools Volume 5, Issue 2, July 2006, pages 109-129 Teacherpreneurs: Cultivating and Scaling Up a Bold Brand of Teacher Leadership Barnett Berry The New Educator Volume 11, Issue 2, April 2015, pages 146-160 Teacher Leadership and Pupil Reaction: the Authoritarian-Democratic Dimension Revisited Håvard Rian Pedagogisk Forskning Volume 13, Issue 1, January 1969, pages 1-15 When university faculty nurture teacher leadership: ‘horizontal’ practices and values in a professor’s work with teachers Anne Elrod Whitney International Journal of Leadership in Education Volume 16, Issue 1, March 2013, pages 71-93 Constructions of teacher leadership in three periods of policy and reform activism Judith Warren Little School Leadership & Management Volume 23, Issue 4, November 2003, pages 401-419 Linking the private and public: teacher leadership and teacher education in the reflexive modernity Teng Huang European Journal of Teacher Education pages 1-16 Action research and teacher leadership Karel Smeets & Petra Ponte Professional Development in Education Volume 35, Issue 2, June 2009, pages 175-193 Attitude has a lot to do with it: dispositions of emerging teacher leadership Jana Hunzicker Teacher Development Volume 17, Issue 4, November 2013, pages 538-561 Teacher Leadership: Rationale, strategy and impact David Frost & Judy Durrant School Leadership & Management Volume 23, Issue 2, May 2003, pages 173-186 Teacher leadership at different school levels: findings and implications from the 2003–04 Schools and Staffing Survey in US public schools Donghai Xie & Jianping Shen International Journal of Leadership in Education Volume 16, Issue 3, September 2013, pages 327-348 Development of teacher leadership: a multi-faceted approach to bringing about improvements in rural elementary schools in Pakistan Takbir Ali Professional Development in Education Volume 40, Issue 3, May 2014, pages 352-375 Preparing Teachers for Teacher Leadership Sandra J. Odell Action in Teacher Education Volume 19, Issue 3, October 1997, pages 120-124 Increasing the impact of a Master’s programme on teacher leadership and school development by means of boundary crossing Marco Snoek, Mascha Enthoven, Joseph Kessels & Monique Volman International Journal of Leadership in Education pages 1-31 Teacher Leadership: An Introduction Ann Lieberman The New Educator Volume 9, Issue 3, July 2013, pages 169-172 Walking the Tightrope of Teacher Leadership Janet M. Fraser Kappa Delta Pi Record Volume 27, Issue 3, April 1991, pages 80-83 Teacher Leadership: In What Ways? For What Purpose? Mary John O'Hair & Ulrich C. Reitzug Action in Teacher Education Volume 19, Issue 3, October 1997, pages 65-76 Teacher Leadership: Making Your Voice Count Kathryn Singh Kappa Delta Pi Record Volume 47, Supplement 1, October 2011, pages 6-10 Rethinking Teacher Leadership with Prospective Teachers Thomas S. Poetter Teaching Education Volume 10, Issue 2, March 1999, pages 141-150 Special educators in inclusive education programmes: reframing their work as teacher leadership Jennifer York-Barr , Jennifer Sommerness, Karen Duke & Gail Ghere International Journal of Inclusive Education Volume 9, Issue 2, April 2005, pages 193-215 Teacher Leadership: Practices, Politics, and Persistence Cynthia L. Carver, Jason Margolis & Tracy Williams The New Educator Volume 9, Issue 3, July 2013, pages 167-168 Embedded teacher leadership: support for a site-based model of professional development Deborah S. Yost, Robert Vogel & Ling L. Liang International Journal of Leadership in Education Volume 12, Issue 4, October 2009, pages 409-433 Conflicting Storylines in Teacher Leadership: How One Literacy Coach Struggled to Position Herself and Her Work Melinda M. Mangin & KaiLonnie Dunsmore The New Educator Volume 9, Issue 3, July 2013, pages 226-249 Teacher leadership and professional development: perspectives, connections and prospects Alex Alexandrou & Sue Swaffield Professional Development in Education Volume 38, Issue 2, April 2012, pages 159-167 Excellent Teachers Leading the Way: How to Cultivate Teacher Leadership Holly J. Thornton Middle School Journal Volume 41, Issue 4, March 2010, pages 36-43 Teacher Leadership vs. School Management: Flatten the Hierarchies Monica Coyle The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas Volume 70, Issue 5, May 1997, pages 236-239 Teacher leadership: the ‘new’ foundations of teacher education Frank Crowther Teaching Education Volume 23, Issue 1, March 2012, pages 109-110 Teacher Leadership: The Reorganization of Room 15 Marta Reinoso Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth Volume 46, Issue 2, January 2002, pages 70-74 Mirror Images: New Reflections on Teacher Leadership by Casey Reason and Clair Reason. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. © 2011. 224 pages. ISBN 978-1412994040. Marcia Griffiths-Prince Kappa Delta Pi Record Volume 48, Issue 4, October 2012, page 191 Teacher Leadership and High Standards in a Summer Middle School James Kelleher Middle School Journal Volume 34, Issue 4, March 2003, pages 20-26 Making the Lead Teacher Concept Work: The Southeastern Teacher Leadership Center John L. Hynes, Pamela Summers & Patrick Socoski Teaching Education Volume 5, Issue 1, September 1992, pages 43-49 From teacher research to teacher leadership: the case of the hertfordshire learning preferences project David Frost & Julie Roberts Teacher Development Volume 8, Issue 2-3, October 2004, pages 181-199 Finding the ‘Enunciative Space’ for Teacher Leadership and Teacher Learning in Schools John Smyth Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education Volume 26, Issue 3, November 1998, pages 191-202

Liens internes